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Wednesday, 30 September 2015

BLACK SOCIAL HISTORY : AFRICAN AMERICAN " MARY E. BRITTON " WAS A PHYSICIAN, EDUCATOR, JOURNALIST AND CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVIST : HOES INTO THE " HALL OF BLACK GENIUS "

           BLACK    SOCIAL   HISTORY                                                                                                                    



































Mary E. Britton


Mary Ellen Britton
Born1855
Lexington, Kentucky, US
Died1925 (aged 69–70)
Lexington, Kentucky, US
NationalityUnited States
Known forFirst African-American female physician in Lexington, Kentucky
Medical career
FieldHydrotherapyelectrotherapy
Mary Ellen Britton (1855–1925) was an African-American physician, educator, journalist and civil rights activist from Lexington, Kentucky. Britton was an original member of the Kentucky Negro Education Association, which formed in 1877. She was president of the Lexington Woman's Improvement Club, and later served as a charter member of the Ladies Orphan Society which founded the Colored Orphan Industrial Home in Lexington, in 1892. During her lifetime she accomplished many things through the obstacles she faced. After teaching black children in Lexington public schools, she worked as a doctor from her home in Lexington. She specialized in hydrotherapyelectrotherapy and massage; and, she was officially granted her license to practice medicine in Lexington, Kentuckyin 1902.

Background and early life[edit]

Mary Ellen Britton was born as a free person of color in 1858. She was one of seven children of Laura and Henry Britton who lived on Mill Street, somewhere between Second and Third Streets[1] which is now in the Gratz Park Historical District of Lexington, Kentucky. Contrary to the limited opportunities many other African-Americans of the time were allowed, she and her siblings—Julia, Susan J., Hattie, Josiah, Robert, and William—acquired a classical education. Her father Henry was a freeborn carpenter (born around 1824) who later became a barber in Berea. Her mother, Laura, was a gifted singer and musician who had been well-educated under the protection of her mother who was an enslaved mistress to Kentucky statesman Thomas F. Marshall. She had been emancipated at the age of sixteen.[2]
At a young age Britton was offered the best education possible for African American children in that time - attending private schools created out of subscriptions from Lexington's African-American professional class. In 1859, along with older sister Julia Britton Hooks (later known as a gifted musician and educator, as well as Berea's first African American teacher), Britton attended a branch school in Lexington started by Mr. William H. Gibson of Louisville, Kentucky.[3] The family later moved to Berea, Kentucky where Laura Britton was hired as a matron at Berea College.[2]
From 1871 to 1874, she attended Berea College, the first institution of higher learning to admit blacks in the state of Kentucky. At the time the only profession offered to an educated woman of any race was teaching. After the death of her parents, Britton left Berea in order to seek employment. She taught in the Lexington School System beginning around 1876[4] and ending in August 1897.

Professional career

After leaving Berea, Britton taught in several schools in central Kentucky and advocated for the improvement of pedagogy in African-American schools. Her paper entitled "Literary Culture of the Teacher" was presented at the second meeting of the Kentucky Negro Education Association in Louisville in 1879. In 1894 she presented "History and Science of Teaching" before the American Association of Educators of Colored Youth in Baltimore, Maryland.[2]
She worked at the Battle Creek Sanitarium in Michigan and learned about hydrotherapyphototherapythermotherapyelectrotherapy and mechanotherapy—the strategies and health principles advocated by the Seventh-day Adventist Church. She attended classes there with the American Medical Missionary College and took classes in Chicago, graduating in 1903. She was the first African-American woman licensed to practice medicine in Lexington, Kentucky.[2]
Her writings on moral and social reform can be found in local newspapers such as the Lexington American Citizen and the Lexington Daily Transcript—she wrote a regular women's column in the Lexington Herald. She also wrote for the Cleveland Gazette, the Indianapolis World, the Baltimore Ivy and the American Catholic Tribune in Cincinnati.[2]

Other accomplishments and attributions

Britton was an original member of the Kentucky Negro Education Association which was formed in 1877 to improve schools for African-American children and to make statewide changes through legislative action.[5] She was also President of the Lexington Woman's Improvement Club. The initial goal for this club was the "elevation of women, the enriching and betterment of home, and the encitement of proper pride and interest in race."[6] Britton served as a charter member of the Ladies Orphans Society, which founded the Colored Orphan Industrial Home in Lexington in 1892. This organization provided food, shelter, education and training to destitute orphans and elderly, homeless women.[7]

Death

Britton never married or had children. She died in 1925 and gave her library to the Seventh-day Adventist Church.[2]

BLACK SOCIAL HISTORY : AFRICAN AMERICAN " ROBERT WILSON III " POLICE OFFICER SHOT DEAD AFTER TRYING TO STOP ROBBERY AT A VIDEO GAME STORE : GOES INTO THE " HALL OF BLACK HEROES "

                                 BLACK    SOCIAL    HISTORY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Police officer shot dead after trying to stop robbery at a Philadelphia video game store as he shopped for a present for his son

  • Officer Robert Wilson III died Thursday after being shot in the head during an attempted robbery in North Philadelphia
  • Wilson exchanged gunfire with two suspects after the gunmen entered a video game store and announced a robbery
  • Two brothers are in custody, Wilson was rushed to a hospital and pronounced dead at 6.25pm
A Philadelphia police officer was fatally shot Thursday during an attempted robbery at a GameStop on the city's north side.
Officer Robert Wilson III, 30, was shopping for a present for his son and in full uniform inside a North Philadelphia GameStop when two armed men entered the store and announced a robbery, ThePhiladelphia Inquirer reports.
Wilson immediately confronted the suspects, and the three exchanged gunfire, with the assailants firing rounds at close range on either side of the officer, Police Commissioner Charles H. Ramsey said in a news conference Thursday.
Officer: Philadelphia Police Officer Robert Wilson III, 30 (photographed), died Thursday after being shot in the head during an attempted robbery at a video-game store on the city's north side
Officer: Philadelphia Police Officer Robert Wilson III, 30 (photographed), died Thursday after being shot in the head during an attempted robbery at a video-game store on the city's north side
Wilson was struck multiple times but continued to fire until he was fatally shot in the head, Ramsey said.
Wilson's partner was outside of the store and exchanged fire with one of the assailants. The second assailant fled and attempted to blend in with the crowd but was caught at the scene.
One was shot in the leg, Ramsey said, but it is unclear if the assailant was shot by Wilson or his partner.
They were identified as Ramone Williams, 26, and Carlton Hipps, 30.
Wilson was rushed to Temple University Hospital where he was pronounced dead at 6.25pm, NBC reports.
Wilson was an eight-year veteran of the department, a husband, and a father of two.
GameStop: Wilson was in full uniform inside a North Philadelphia GameStop (photographed) as part of his patrol duties when two armed men entered the store and announced a robbery
GameStop: Wilson was in full uniform inside a North Philadelphia GameStop (photographed) as part of his patrol duties when two armed men entered the store and announced a robbery
Struck: Wilson was struck multiple times but continued to fire until he was fatally shot in the head (here, Wilson's body is transported by ambulance to the Medical Examiner's Office)
Struck: Wilson was struck multiple times but continued to fire until he was fatally shot in the head (here, Wilson's body is transported by ambulance to the Medical Examiner's Office)
Procession: A procession was held for the officer Thursday as his body was transported by ambulance to the Medical Examiner's Office
Procession: A procession was held for the officer Thursday as his body was transported by ambulance to the Medical Examiner's Office
Never Forgotten: Department officials posted on the Philadelphia Police Department's Facebook page writing that Wilson's sacrifice will 'never, ever, be forgotten'
Never Forgotten: Department officials posted on the Philadelphia Police Department's Facebook page writing that Wilson's sacrifice will 'never, ever, be forgotten'
'Take a moment and say a prayer for this family,' Ramsey said. 'And this 9-year-old boy who will now grow up without a father. A 1-year-old is going to grow up without a dad because of what happened today.'
Authorities later found the suspect's weapons in the store: a .40-caliber and a 9mm.
Police say the brothers were repeat offenders and one was on parole at the time of the shooting.
The suspect who was shot was taken to a local hospital but his condition has not been released, NBC reports.
Wilson was a volunteer in the department's body-camera program but is was not immediately known if he was wearing one at the time of the shooting, Ramsey said. However, a surveillance camera in the store captured the incident. 
The video has been reviewed by homicide investigators.
A procession was held for the officer Thursday as his body was transported by ambulance to the Medical Examiner's Office.
At the news conference, Ramsey said he knew the officer and described Wilson as a 'very, very brave, heroic individual.' 
'People tend to lose sight of the dangers inherent in being a police officer,' Ramsey said. 
'Sometimes they're seriously injured or even murdered as a result of trying to protect every single person in this city...He put his life on the line to make Philadelphia a better city and a safer city.'
Volunteer: Wilson (left) was a volunteer in the department's body-camera program but is was not immediately known if he was wearing one at the time of the shooting 
Volunteer: Wilson (left) was a volunteer in the department's body-camera program but is was not immediately known if he was wearing one at the time of the shooting 


Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2982199/Cop-father-two-gunned-attempted-robbery-inside-GameStop.html#ixzz3nEn9iK00
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