Democratic Republic of the Congo
Katanga Afro-JapaneseDuring the 1970s, an increased demand for copper and cobalt attracted Japanese investments in the mineral rich southeastern region of Katanga Province. Over a 10-year period, more than 1,000 Japanese miners relocated to the region, confined to a strictly male-only camp. Arriving without family or spouses, the men often sought social interaction outside the confounds of their camps. In search of intimacy with the opposite sex, sometimes resulting in cohabitation, the men openly engaged in interracial dating and relationships, a practice mostly embraced by the local society. As a result, a number of Japanese miners fathered children with native Congolese women. However, most of the mixed race infants resulting from these unions died, soon after birth. Multiple testimonies of local people suggest that the infants were poisoned by a Japanese lead physician and nurse working at the local mining hospitale. Subsequently, the circumstances would have brought the miners shame as most of them already had families back in their native Japan. The practice forced many native Katangan mothers to hide their children by not reporting to the hospital to give birth. Other women raised their child more rural or remote areas as blasian children were sought after and murdered in the city by Japanese officials.
Today, fifty Afro-Japanese have formed an association of Katanga Infanticide survivors. The organization has hired legal council seeking a formal investigation into the killings. The group submitted official inquiry to both the Congolese and Japanese governments, to no avail. Issues specific to this group include having no documentation of their births, since not having been born in the local hospital spared their lives. The total number of survivors is unknown.
Equatorial GuineaThe mid-19th century saw about 500 Chinese laborers and indentured servants, along with a handful from India stealthily imported to the island of Fernando Po through the once Portuguese occupied Macau. While most of these servants returned to their homelands at the end of their servitude, a few remained, settling and marrying into the local population. One example is immigrant East Indian laborer Franciso Kashu who remained in Moka after the death of his last living relative. He married the daughter of one of the last Bubi kings, producing several Equatoguinean-Indian children.
Zheng He's fleetIn 1999, Nicholas Kristof of the New York Times reported a surprising encounter on the island of Pate, where he found a village of stone huts. He talked to an elderly man living in the village who said that he was a descendant of Chinese explorers who were shipwrecked there centuries before. The Chinese had supposedly traded with the locals, and had even loaded giraffes onto their ship to take back to China. However, the Chinese ran aground on a nearby reef. Kristof found evidence that confirmed the man's story. Such evidence included the Asian features of the people in the village, plus Asian-looking porcelain artifacts.[Africa-Kenya 1][Africa-Kenya 2] These descendents of Zheng He's fleet occupy both Pate and Lamu Islands.
New immigrationNew interest in Kenya's natural resources has attracted over $1 billion dollars of investment from Chinese firms. This has propelled new development in Kenya's infastruction with Chinese firms bringing in their own males workers to build roads. The temporary residents usually arrive without their spouses and families. Thus, a rise of incidents involving local college-aged females has resulted in an increased rate of Afro-Chinese infant births to single Kenyan mothers.
All Madagascan living groups show a mixture of uniparental lineages typical of present African and South East Asian populations. Years of intermarriages created the Malagasy people, who primarily speak Malagasy, an Austronesian language with Bantu influences. In the study of "The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages" shows the Bantu Maternal origin to be 38% and Paternal 51% while the Asian Paternal to be 34% and Maternal 62%. In the study of Malagasy Autosomal DNA shows the highlanders ethnic group like Merina are almost an even mixture of Asian and Bantu origin, while the Coastal ethnic group have much higher Bantu mixture in their autosomal DNA suggesting they are mixture of new Bantu migrants and the already established highlander ethnic group. Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1200 years ago by a very small group of women of approximately 30.
Intermarriage between Chinese men and native Malagasy women was not uncommon. Several thousands Cantonese men intermarried and cohabited with Malagasy women. 98% of the Chinese traced their origin from Guangdong more specifically Cantonese district of Shunde. For example the census alone in 1954 census found 1, 111 "irregular" Chinese-Malagasy unions, and 125 legitimate, i.e., legally married. Registered by their mothers under a Malagasy name.
NigeriaSince the 1970s, Nigeria has seen a slow, but steady, increase in the immigrant Filipino population drawn by the oil industry. Established in 1973, the Philippine Barangay Society of Nigeria addresses issues specific to over 1700 Nigerized Filipinos living in the country. This acculturation has resulted in a small, but growing, number of biracial Nigerian-Filipinos births. Most of these children are parented by Filipino mothers and Nigerian fathers.
RéunionThe native Kaf population has a diverse range of ancestry stemming from colonial Chinese and Indian peoples. They also descent from African slaves brought to the island from countries like Mozambique, Guinea, Senegal, Madagascar, Tanzania and Zambia.
SeychellesMore than 70% of native population has Afro-Asian ancestry stemming from African, Malagasy, Indian and Chinese peoples, combined with additional French and British origins. However, the demographic is specifically proud of their African/Malagasy heritage and have formed an institute promoting their identity and cultural tolerance.
DNA of South Africa's ethnicThe mtDNA study of ethnic people from South Africa shows substantial African genetic mtDNA contribution in both the Cape Malay and South African Indians. mtDNA of cape Malay shows 10% African mtDNA contribution in their gene pool including 20% (1 in 5) of South African Indians, there appears to be no African Y-DNA contribution detected but this could be due to the fact that the sample size was small. mtDNA study also revealed that about 1 in 10 South African Black people have mtDNA lineages derived from Eurasian (3.0%) and Asian of Indian origins (7.1%)[Africa-South-Africa 2]
Cape ColouredsThere is significant genetic mixture of East/Southeast Asian, Indian, African and European DNA in the modern ethnic group of Cape coloured. The highest genetic contribution to the Cape coloured are from African maternal mtDNA displaying a very high frequencies at 79.04% followed by African Paternal Y-DNA frequencies at 45.18%. European Genetic contribution is the second highest after Africans with a high frequency of 37.72% from European Y-DNA but with low contribution of European mtDNA at 4.26%. The Indian genetics also displayed significant frequencies, the mtDNA contribution stands at 13.85% and Y-DNA at 9.65%, and lastly the East/South East Asian Y-DNA in the Cape coloured also displayed a significant frequency at 8.54% but with a very low contribution of Southeast East Asian mtDNA at only 1.6%, some of the Southeast Asian contribution from the Cape colored gene pool may have partially derived from both Southeast East Asian and Malagasy who both also exhibit haplogroups O1a and O2a and B4a, B5a, F1c. The only acception of the completely East/Southeast Asian lineage in Cape coloured are haplogroup O3-M122 (3.58%) and K-M9 (1.32%) both which are found among Chinese and Southeast Asians but not among the Malagasy.
Latin AmericaIn Latin America, significant numbers of Chinese first started arriving in the mid-19th century as part of the Coolie slave trade. By the mid-20th century, Cuba, Guyana and Peru had the largest Chinese populations. By the end of WWII, there were considerable high numbers of Latin American descended from Chinese fathers and local women. One of the most famous of these is the Chinese-Afro-Cuban artist Wifredo Lam, known as the Cuban Picasso. There are also small numbers of Latin American residents of Asian and African descent in countries like Puerto Rico, Haiti and Dominican Republic.
Cuba120,000 Cantonese coolies (all males) entered Cuba under contract for 80 years, most did not marry, but Hung Hui (1975:80) cites there was a frequency of sexual activity between black women and Cantonese coolies. According to Osberg (1965:69) the free Chinese conducted the practice of buying slave women and freeing them expressly for marriage. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Chinese men (Cantonese) engaged in sexual activity with white Cuban women and black Cuban women, and from such relations many children were born. (For a British Caribbean model of Chinese cultural retention through procreation with black women, see Patterson, 322-31).
In the 1920s an additional 30000 Cantonese and small groups of Japanese also arrived; both immigrations were exclusively male, and there was rapid with white, black, and mulato populations. CIA World Factbook. Cuba. 2008. 15 May 2008. claimed 114,240 Chinese-Cuban with only 300 pure Chinese.
In the study of Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba. Thirty-five Y-chromosome SNPs were typed in the 132 male individuals of the Cuban sample. The study does not include any people with some Chinese ancestry. All the samples were White Cubans and Black Cubans. 2 out of 132 male sample belong to East Asian Haplogroup O2 which is found in significant frequencies among Cantonese people is found in 1.5% of Cuban population.
One of Cuba's most known Afro-Asians is artist Wifredo Lam.
GuyanaDuring the mid-19th century, the British Empire imported approximately 14,000 Chinese indentured servants into Guyana as part of a broader colonial system aimed at recruiting sugar-plantation laborers. The majority of the male workers arrived without families, thus intermarried with local Indo-Guyanese and Afro-Guyanese women.
PeruAbout 100,000 Cantonese coolies (almost all males) in 1849 to 1874 migrated to Peru and intermarried with Peruvian women of mestizo, European, Ameridian, European/mestizo, African and mulatto origin. Many Peruvian Chinese today are of mixed Chinese, Spanish, and Ameridian lineages. Among this population exist many of African slave lineage. Estimates for Chinese-Peruvian is about 1.3 – 1.6 millions. Asian Peruvians are estimated to be 3% of the population, but one source places the number of citizens with some Chinese ancestry at 4.2 million, which equates to 15% of the country's total population.
The CaribbeanIn the 1860s, Chinese and East Indian immigrants arrived in the West Indies as indentures servants. Chinese male laborers and male migrants who went to Peru, Cuba, Guyana, Madagascar, America, Jamaica, Trinidad where Chinese often intermarried with local black women which resulted in large population of mulatto children. According to the 1946 Census from Jamaica and Trinidad alone, 12,394 Chinese were located between Jamaica and Trinidad. 5,515 of those who lived in Jamaica were Chinese Jamaican and another 3,673 were Chinese-Trinidadians living in Trinidad. The Chinese men who married African women in Guyana and Trinidad Tobago were mostly Cantonese, while the Chinese men who married African women in Jamaica were mostly Hakka.
In Haiti, there is a small percentage within the minority who are of Asian descent. For example, Haitian painter Edouard Wah was born to a Chinese father and Haitian mother.
In Jamaica, Guyana, and Trinidad a percentage of the population of people are of Indian descent, some of whom have contributed to Afro-Asian Caribbean children.
HaitiHaiti is home to Marabou peoples, a half East Indian and half African people who descent from East Indian immigrants who arrived from other Caribbean nations, such Martinique and Guadaloupe and African slave descendants. Most present-day descendants of the original Marabou are products of hypodescent and, subsequently, mostly of African in ancestry.
The country also has a sizable Japanese and Chinese Haitian population. One of the country's most notable Afro-Asians is the late painter Edouard Wah who was born to a Chinese immigrant father and black Haitian mother.