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Wednesday, 20 November 2013

BLACK SOCIAL HISTORY : HOW BLACK AND ASIAN TROOPS BECAME INVOLVED IN WORLD WAR ONE :

       BLACK            SOCIAL            HISTORY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Remembrance Day – Black & Asian Soldiers in WW1

It is often thought that World War One was a European War, fought exclusively by Europeans. Nothing could be further from the truth.  Despite the fact that the mainstream media makes precious little effort to acknowledge the contributions of Non Europeans.  There were lots of Black and Asian soldiers in WW1.

HOW BLACK & ASIAN TROOPS BECAME INVOLVED IN WW1

Colonial Troops
Black & Asian Soldiers in WW1
Some simple facts to remember is that Prior to WW1 Britain & France had colonies in the Caribbean, Africa & Asia, as well as many other places around the world.  Germany also had colonies in Africa.  Turkey was involved in WW1 and the Turkish Troops contained an African & of course a Muslim contingent.

The British Caribbean

After centuries of slavery and servitude. People in the British Caribbean were relishing their freedom. Though many had a lot of loyalty to the the “Mother Country”. When WW1 began. West Indians donated large sums of money to aid the war effort and also volunteered to fight for Britain, joining The British West India Regiment.
By the end of the war over 15,500 West Indians had joined the BWIR and had experienced military service in England, Italy, Egypt, India, France, Belgium, Palestine, Mesopotamia (Iraq) and East Africa.

AFRICANS IN THE FRENCH ARMY

Like Britain, France was a major colonial power. France drew troops from all over “Francophone Africa”. France also had Colonies in South-East Asia. Some of the most distinguished African Soldiers serving in the French Army were the Tirailleurs Senegalais.
Africans in the French Army WW1
Africans in the French Army WW1
The German troops nicknamed the Tirailleurs Senegalais ‘Black devils’, when, fighting like demons, they had forced the Kaiser’s shock troops to retreat before them.”
Tirailleurs Senegalais attack the German lines.
Tirailleurs Senegalais attack the German lines.

AFRICAN AMERICAN TROOPS

America was a racially segregated society. Yet African Americans were serving in the U.S Armed Forces.
When the United States declared war against Germany in April 1917, The U.S War Department realised that they desperately needed more men to ensure victory. The decision was made to allow African Americans to sign up. In some states African Americans were forced to sign up and even fraudulently arrested as draft dodgers.
By the end of World War I, African Americans served in cavalry, infantry, signal, medical, engineer, and artillery units, as well as serving as chaplains, surveyors, truck drivers, chemists, and intelligence officers.
African Americans also served in French units
The 369th Infantry – “THE HARLEM HELL FIGHTERS”,  became one of the most decorated units in WW1 W.Eugene Bullard was a highly decorated African american Pilot in the French Flying corps. He was one of only two black combat pilots in the first world war.
African Americans in WW1
African Americans in WW1

BLACK SOLDIERS IN THE BRITISH ARMY

Although little is known of Black Britons in the British army. We do have some evidence to show that Black Britons served in WW1 in the Army and Navy.
Walter Tull - British Army
Walter Tull
Former Spurs Player Walter Tull is the most celebrated Black British soldier who achieved the rank of Lieutenant.
Black & Mixed Race Soldiers in the British Army
Black & Mixed Race Soldiers in the British Army
These photos show several black and Mixed race soldiers serving in the British Army in WW1.

ASIAN TROOPS IN WW1

Asians in the British Army
Asians in the British Army
As well as Africans and Caribbean soldiers there were also Asian Soldiers fighting in WW1. India sent over 1 million men to aid the War effort. At that time India included Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh & Sri Lanka. Soldiers were from many ethnic backgrounds such as Pathans, Sikhs, Muslims & Hindus. The photo here shows Gurkhas from Nepal.
Ghurkas WW1
Ghurkas

AFRICANS IN THE GERMAN ARMY

Little is known about how many of Germany’s Pre WW1 war black population served in the Armed forces. Some certainly did serve in WW1.
Remember that WW1 was not just fought in Europe. There were theatres of war in Africa and Asia. In East Africa, The Germans used Askari troops called “Schutztruppe“. They fought bravely and were never defeated even after Armistice.
Askari -Schutztruppe
African Schutztruppe Serving in East African Campaign WW1