Sunday, 26 May 2013


                    BLACK               SOCIAL           HISTORY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The Black People of Australia who happen to have lived in that country for thousand of years, are still been insulted by been called " ABORIGINES "  they are Native or Black Australian, not the very insulting name of Aboriginal People.                                                                                                                                                             

The Issue of Aboriginal people gaining recognition for their full rights on land held under pastoral lease in the Northern Territory of Australia will become a major battleground for human rights in the 1990s and beyond.
When considering the relocation and resettlement of the Aboriginal people of Australia, any pattern of movement away from their country can only be seen as part of a boomerang movement of return. To accept any invitation to contemplate the separation of people from country is pointless. Likewise, it is equally pointless to contemplate the separation of the country from the people.
The Aboriginal people of Australia are not merely "simple hunter-gatherers" wandering the face of the earth in search of daily food. They are a people with a highly developed "non-material" culture that integrates individual and collective subjectivity into the structures of the environment. They are not so much part of nature as they are its intelligence, playing a vital role in the self-government of the interactions between species and environment.
When a wedge is driven between the Australian people and the Australian country, both suffer traumatic changes and go into decline. The land has a great a longing for there turn of the Aboriginal people as the Aboriginal people have for their return to their country. No government policy and no "whitefella" (Anglo-Australian) ploy has yet proven stronger than this longing.
White Cattlemen/Aboriginal Country
In the Northern Territory of Australia, the white pastoralists (cattle and beef barons) presently stand poised to drive even deeper the hundred-year-old wedge that separates the Aboriginal people from their country. In many cases they have succeeded in forcing a temporary retreat by Aboriginal people from land under pastoral lease.
The Northern Territory, an administrative division of the colonizing Anglo-Australian government, was granted self-governing status in 1978. It was formerly administered by the Commonwealth Government of Australia, which acquired it from the South Australia, which acquired it from the South Australian government in 1911. South Australia, then a colony of Great Britain, acquired it from New South Wales in 1863. Neither New South Wales nor the British government, however, took the trouble to acquire it from the Aboriginal people. Probably for this reason, Aborigines do not concede that the white claim to their lands is well found.
Immediately upon achieving self-government in 1978, the white interests that had underwritten the Country-Liberal Party government set about consolidating the hold they had acquired on Aboriginal countries. The "locked-gate" strategy of the pastoralists, combined with bluff and intimidation, was directed to ensure that once the "property" had been rid of Aboriginal inhabitants, it remained so.
Aboriginal people on some pastoral leases refuse to accept that they may only remain on their country if they are "workers" (and, as such, liable to dismissal); their continued presence has been a thorn in the side of the whites. The other thorn is the reservation in the pastoral lease that guarantees the legal right for Aboriginal people to live on their land. Although this has long been abused, with N.T. Aboriginal people being shot and otherwise mistreated during the last hundred years without the forfeiture of the lease, the continued presence of the reservation serves to complement the on-the-ground efforts of the Aboriginal people to maintain their relationship with their country.
Although the Crown did not acquire the land from Aboriginal people in the first instance, it made provision in the pastoral leases which, if adhered to, would have produced a very different history of human rights in Australia. The genesis of the reservation in the lease is found in the instructions from the British secretary of state for the colonies to the governor of New South Wales in 1848 (Earl Grey to Fitzroy, 11 February 1848). (At this time, the whole of the Northern Territory was still part of New South Wales.) Grey wrote:
I think it essential that it should be generally understood that leases granted for this purpose give the grantees only exclusive rights of pasturage for their cattle and of cultivating such land as they may require within the large limits thus assigned to them but that these leases are not intended to deprive the natives of their former right to hunt over these districts, or to wander over them in search of subsistence in the manner to which they have been accustomed, from the spontaneous produce of the soil, except over land actually cultivated or fenced in for that purpose.
Clearly, the white interests are to be protected by fences; the Aboriginal interests are to continue to range over the country. The history of the Northern Territory has been such that the inverse is the result