This Black Social History is design for the education of all races about Black People Contribution to world history over the past centuries, even though its well hidden from the masses so that our children dont even know the relationship between Black People and the wealth of their history in terms of what we have contributed to make this world a better place for all.
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Thursday, 18 July 2013
BLACK SOCIAL HISTORY : AFRO-PORTUGUESE ARE BLACK AFRICAN DESCENT OR MIGRANTS FROM FORMER PORTUGUESE AFRICAN COLONIES :
BLACK SOCIAL HISTORY Afro - Portuguese are citizens of Portugal of Black-African descent.
Most Afro-Portuguese migrated from or are descendants from people issuing from the former Portuguese African colonies, (Angola, Guinea-Bissau,São Tomé and Príncipe, Cape Verde and Mozambique), even if very small numbers originate in other Sub-Saharan African countries.
These communities arrived in Portugal after the independence of the African colonies, in 1974–75, and mainly after the Portuguese economic growth of the second half of the 1980s. They should not be confused with the population, overwhelmingly white Europeans born in Portugal, that "returned" from the same colonies immediately after their independence — the so called retornados (Portuguese settlers and descendants of Portuguese settlers born in former African colonies who relocated to Portugal after independence and in second half of 1980s are also included in this category).
Due to the present Portuguese nationality law that privileges Jus sanguinis, most of the Black-Africans in Portugal maintain their respective nationality of origin. In fact, if the nationality law of 1959 was based on the principle of Jus soli, the changes made in 1975 and 1981 changed it to a Jus sanguinis law, thus basically denying the possibility naturalization not only to first generation migrants, but also to their children and grandchildren (only very recently, in 2006, was these situation slightly changed, but still stressing Jus sanguinis). Of course, there are some Afro-Portuguese that have Portuguese nationality, but their numbers are not known, since there are no official statistics in Portugal about race or ethnicity.
According to the Portuguese Foreigners and Borders Services, in 2006, there were the following contingents of Africans legally in Portugal: (see table)
The arrival of these black Africans in Portugal, coupled with their difficulty in accessing full citizenship, enhanced, from the 1970s onwards, the processes of ethnic and racial discrimination in Portuguese society (besides the Africans, also targeting Brazilians and Gypsies). This is the result of multiple factors, from institutional and juridical, to socio-cultural (the construction of stereotypical ethno-racial differences), residential (with the concentration of black migrants in degraded ghettos) and economical (the poorly qualified professional and educational profile of the migrants). These discrimination processes are concomitant with a strengthening of an ethno-racialist view of Portuguese national
identity, even in younger generations, coupled with a parallel strengthening of black identity in African migrants, even surpassing national origins.