Friday, 29 August 2014


                                                BLACK              SOCIAL            HISTORY

L             HISTORY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Gordon Roger Alexander Buchanan Parks (November 30, 1912 – March 7, 2006) was an American photographer, musician, writer and film director. He is best remembered for his photographic essays for Life magazine and as the director of the 1971 film,Shaft.[2]

Early life

Parks was born in Fort Scott, Kansas, the son of Sarah (née Ross) and Jackson Parks.[3] He was the last child born to them. His father was a farmer who grew corn, beets, turnips, potatoes, collard greens, and tomatoes. They also had a few ducks, chickens, and hogs.[4]
He attended a segregated elementary school. The town was too small to afford a separate high school that would facilitate segregation of the secondary school, but blacks were not allowed to play sports or attend school social activities,[5] and they were discouraged from developing any aspirations for higher education. Parks related in a documentary on his life that his teacher told him that his desire to go to college would be a waste of money.
When Parks was eleven years old, three white boys threw him into the Marmaton River, knowing he couldn't swim. He had the presence of mind to duck underwater so they wouldn't see him make it to land.[6]
His mother died when he was fourteen. He spent his last night at the family home sleeping beside his mother's coffin, seeking not only solace, but a way to face his own fear of death.[7] Soon after, he was sent to live with relatives. That situation ended with Parks being turned out onto the street to fend for himself.
In 1929, he briefly worked in a gentlemen's club, the Minnesota Club. There he not only observed the trappings of success, but was able to read many books from the club library.[8] When the Wall Street Crash of 1929 brought an end to the club, he jumped a train to Chicago,[9] where he managed to land a job in a flophouse.[10]

Photography career

At the age of twenty-five, Parks was struck by photographs of migrant workers in a magazine and bought his first camera, a Voigtländer Brillant, for $12.50 at a Seattle, Washington, pawnshop.[11] The photography clerks who developed Parks' first roll of film, applauded his work and prompted him to seek a fashion assignment at a women's clothing store in St. Paul, Minnesota, that was owned by Frank Murphy. Those photographs caught the eye of Marva Louis, the elegant wife of heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis. She encouraged Parks to move to Chicago in 1940,[12] where he began a portrait business and specialized in photographs of society women.
Over the next few years, Parks moved from job to job, developing a freelance portrait and fashion photographer sideline. He began to chronicle the city's South Side black ghetto and, in 1941, an exhibition of those photographs won Parks a photography fellowship with the Farm Security Administration (FSA).

American Gothic, Washington, D.C.- a well-known photograph by Gordon Parks
Working as a trainee under Roy Stryker, Parks created one of his best-known photographs, American Gothic, Washington, D.C.,[13]named after the iconic Grant Wood painting, American Gothic. The photograph shows a black woman, Ella Watson, who worked on the cleaning crew of the FSA building, standing stiffly in front of an American flag hanging on the wall, a broom in one hand and a mop in the background. Parks had been inspired to create the image after encountering racism repeatedly in restaurants and shops in the segregated capital city.

A later photograph in the FSA series by Parks shows Ella Watson and her family
Upon viewing the photograph, Stryker said that it was an indictment of America, and that it could get all of his photographers fired.[14] He urged Parks to keep working with Watson, however, which led to a series of photographs of her daily life. Parks said later that his first image was overdone and not subtle; other commentators have argued that it drew strength from its polemical nature and its duality of victim and survivor, and so has affected far more people than his subsequent pictures of Mrs. Watson.[15]
After the FSA disbanded, Parks remained in Washington, D.C. as a correspondent with the Office of War Information.[16] Finally, disgusted with the prejudice he encountered, however, he resigned in 1944. Moving to Harlem, Parks became a freelance fashion photographer for Vogue. He later followed Stryker to the Standard Oil Photography Project in New Jersey, which assigned photographers to take pictures of small towns and industrial centers. The most striking work by Parks during that period included, Dinner Time at Mr. Hercules Brown's Home, Somerville, Maine(1944); Grease Plant Worker, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1946); Car Loaded with Furniture on Highway (1945); and Ferry Commuters, Staten Island, N.Y. (1946).
Parks renewed his search for photography jobs in the fashion world. Despite racist attitudes of the day, the Vogue editor, Alexander Liberman, hired him to shoot a collection of evening gowns. Parks photographed fashion for Vogue for the next few years and he developed the distinctive style of photographing his models in motion rather than poised. During this time, he published his first two books, Flash Photography (1947) and Camera Portraits: Techniques and Principles of Documentary Portraiture (1948).
A 1948 photographic essay on a young Harlem gang leader won Parks a staff job as a photographer and writer with Life magazine. For twenty years, Parks produced photographs on subjects including fashion, sports, Broadway, poverty, and racial segregation, as well as portraits of Malcolm XStokely CarmichaelMuhammad Ali, and Barbra Streisand. He became "one of the most provocative and celebrated photojournalists in the United States."[17]

Film career

In the 1950s, Parks worked as a consultant on various Hollywood productions. He later directed a series of documentaries on black ghetto life that were commissioned by National Educational Television.
With his film adaptation of his autobiographical novel, The Learning Tree in 1969, Parks became Hollywood's first major black director. It was filmed in his home town of Fort Scott, Kansas.[18] Parks also wrote the screenplay and composed the musical score for the film, with assistance from his friend, the composer Henry Brant.
Shaft, a 1971 detective film directed by Parks and starring Richard Roundtree as John Shaft, became a major hit that spawned a series of films that would be labeled as,blaxploitation. Parks' feel for settings was confirmed by Shaft, with its portrayal of the super-cool leather-clad, black private detective hired to find the kidnapped daughter of a Harlem racketeer.
Parks also directed the 1972 sequel, Shaft's Big Score, in which the protagonist finds himself caught in the middle of rival gangs of racketeers. Parks's other directorial credits include The Super Cops (1974) and Leadbelly (1976), a biopic of the blues musician Huddie Ledbetter.
In the 1980s, he made several films for television and composed the music and a libretto for Martin, a ballet tribute to Martin Luther King, Jr., which premiered in Washington, D.C. during 1989. It was screened on national television on King's birthday in 1990.
In 2000, as an homage, he had a cameo appearance in the Shaft sequel that starred Samuel L. Jackson in the title role as the namesake and nephew of the original John Shaft. In the cameo scene, Parks was sitting playing chess when Jackson greeted him as, "Mr. P.".

Composing music

His first job was as a piano player in a brothel when he was a teenager.[19] Parks also performed as a jazz pianist. His song "No Love", composed in another brothel, was performed during a national radio broadcast by Larry Funk and his orchestra in the early 1930s.[20]
Parks composed Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1953) at the encouragement of black American conductor, Dean Dixon, and his wife Vivian, a pianist,[21] and with the help of the composer Henry Brant.[22] He completed Tree Symphony in 1967. In 1989, he composed and directed Martin, a ballet dedicated to Martin Luther King, Jr., the civil rightsleader who had been assassinated.


Beginning in the 1960's, Parks branched out into literature, writing The Learning Tree (1963). He authored several books of poetry, which he illustrated with his own photographs, and he wrote three volumes of memoirs.
In 1981, Parks turned to fiction with Shannon, a novel about Irish immigrants fighting their way up the social ladder in turbulent early twentieth-century New York. Parks' writing accomplishments include novels, poetry, autobiography, and non-fiction that includes photographic instructional manuals and filmmaking books. Parks also wrote the poem entitled, "The Funeral" during this period.

Subject for others

Gordon Parks was the subject of film and print profiles produced by others, notably, Half Past Autumn in 2000. A gallery exhibition of his photography-related, abstract oil paintings was held in 1981.

Personal life

Parks was married and divorced three times. Parks married Sally Alvis in Minneapolis during 1933 [23] and they divorced in 1961. He married Elizabeth Campbell in 1962 and they divorced in 1973. Parks first met Genevieve Young in 1962 when he began writing The Learning Tree.[24] At that time, his publisher assigned her to be his editor. They became romantically involved at a time when they both were divorcing previous spouses, and married in 1973. They divorced in 1979. For many years, Parks was romantically involved with Gloria Vanderbilt, the railroad heiress and designer.[25] Their relationship evolved into a deep friendship that endured throughout his lifetime.
Parks fathered four children: Gordon, Jr., David, Leslie, and Toni (Parks-Parsons). His oldest son Gordon Parks, Jr., whose talents resembled his father's, was killed in a plane crash in 1979 in Kenya, where he had gone to direct a film.[26] Parks has five grandchildren: Alain, Gordon III, Sarah, Campbell, and Satchel. Malcolm X honored Parks when he asked him to be the godfather of his daughter, Qubilah Shabazz.
Gordon Parks received more than twenty honorary doctorates in his lifetime.[27]
He died of cancer at the age of 93 while living in Manhattan, and is buried in his hometown of Fort Scott, Kansas.


Parks is remembered for photography, film making, music composition, and writing. He also is known for his activism and campaigning for civil rights. He was the first African American to work at Life magazine and the first to write, direct, and score a Hollywood film. He was profiled in the 1967 documentary, ", by American filmmaker Warren Forma.
Parks was a co-founder of Essence magazine. He was one of the early contributors to the style of movies that became known as the blaxploitation genre, in which negative stereotypes of black males as being involved in drugs, violence, and women were exploited for commercially-successful films featuring black actors.
Parks said that freedom was the theme of all of his work. He described it as, "Not allowing anyone to set boundaries, cutting loose the imagination, and then making the new horizons."[13]
Parks' son, Gordon Parks, Jr. (1934–1979) also directed films, including Super FlyThree the Hard Way, and Aaron Loves Angela. His career was cut short when he died in a plane crash in Africa.


  • In 1941, Parks was awarded a fellowship for photography from the Rosenwald Fund. The fellowship allowed him to work with the Farm Security Administration.[28]
  • In 1961, Parks was named "Magazine Photographer of the Year" by the American Society of Magazine Photos.[28]
  • In 1972, the NAACP awarded Parks the Spingarn Medal.[29]
  • In 1984, Parks received an honorary Doctor of Humanities degree from Thiel College, a private, liberal arts college in Greenville, Pennsylvania
  • In 1989, the United States Library of Congress deemed The Learning Tree "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" due to its being the first major studio feature film directed by an African American and the film was preserved in the United States National Film Registry
  • In 2000, Parks was awarded The Congress Of Racial Equality Lifetime Achievement Award.
  • In 2000, the Library of Congress deemed Shaft to be "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant", selecting it for NFR preservation as well
  • In 2003 he was awarded The Royal Photographic Society's Special 150th Anniversary Medal and Honorary Fellowship (HonFRPS) in recognition of a sustained, significant contribution to the art of photography.[30]
  • In 1995, Parks announced that he would donate his papers and entire artistic collection to the Library of Congress and one year later, "The Gordon Parks Collection" was curated
  • In 1997, the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. mounted a career retrospective on Parks, Half Past Autumn: The Art of Gordon Parks
  • In 1999, Gordon Parks Elementary School, a nonprofit, K-5 grade public charter school in Kansas City, Missouri, was established to educate the urban-core inhabitants [31]
  • In 2004, The Art Institute of Boston conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters upon Parks
  • In 2008, an alternative learning center in Saint Paul, Minnesota renamed their school Gordon Parks High School after receiving a new building [32]

Works summary


  • Flash Photography (1947)* Camera Portraits: Techniques and Principles of Documentary Portraiture (1948) (documentary)
  • The Learning Tree (1964) (semi-autobiographical)
  • A Choice of Weapons (1967) (autobiographical)
  • Born Black (1970) (compilation of essays and photographs)
  • To Smile in Autumn (1979) (autobiographical)
    • New edition with foreword by Alexs D. Pate. Minneapolis:, 2009
  • Voices in the Mirror Doubleday, New York (1990) (autobiographical)
  • The Sun Stalker (2003) (biography on J.M.W. Turner)
  • A Hungry Heart (Nov. 1, 2005) (autobiographical)

Compilations of poetry and photography

  • Gordan Parks: Elementary school
  • Gordon Parks: A Poet and His Camera
  • Gordon Parks: Whispers of Intimate Things
  • Gordon Parks: In Love
  • Gordon Parks: Moments Without Proper Names (1975)
  • Arias of Silence
  • Glimpses Toward Infinity
  • A Star for Noon - An Homage to Women in Images Poetry and Music (2000)
  • Eyes With Winged Thoughts (released Nov. 1, 2005)
  • Half Past Autumn: A Retrospective, memoir excerpts by Gordon Parks. Bulfinch Press/Little, Brown (1997) ISBN 0-8212-2298-8



  • Moments Without Proper Names (1987)
  • Martin (1989) (ballet about Martin Luther King)
  • Shaft's Big Score (1972)