Henry Lincoln Johnson in uniform.png
Birth name William Henry Johnson
Nickname(s) "Black Death"
Born c. July 15, 1892
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, U.S.
Died July 1, 1929 (aged 36)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch Seal of the United States Department of War.png United States Army
Years of service 1917–1918
Rank WW1-Sergeant.svg Sergeant
New York National Guard
369th Infantry Regiment
Battles/wars World War I
Awards Medal of Honor ribbon.svg Medal of Honor (2015)
Distinguished Service Cross ribbon.svg Distinguished Service Cross (2003)
Purple Heart BAR.svg Purple Heart (1996)
Croix de Guerre 1914-1918 ribbon.svg Croix de guerre (Palm and Star) (1918)
William Henry Johnson (circa July 15, 1892 – July 1, 1929), commonly known as Henry Johnson, was a United States Army soldier who performed heroically in the first African American unit of the U.S. Army to engage in combat in World War I. On watch in the Argonne Forest on May 14, 1918, he fought off a German raid in hand-to-hand combat, killing multiple German soldiers and rescuing a fellow soldier while experiencing 21 wounds, in an action that was brought to the nation's attention by coverage in the New York World and the Saturday Evening Post later that year. On June 2, 2015 he was awarded the Medal of Honor by President Barack Obama in a posthumous ceremony at the White House.
In 1918, racism against African Americans was common among white American troops and up the line within the U.S. military, while French troops welcomed them. Johnson was recognized by the French with a Croix de guerre with star and bronze palm, and was the first American soldier in World War I to receive that honor.
Johnson died, poor, in obscurity, in 1929. From 1919 on, Henry Johnson's story has been part of wider consideration of treatment of African Americans in the Great War. A 1919 treatment covered the intersection of racism with their experience. There was a long struggle to achieve awards for him from the U.S. military. He was finally awarded the Purple Heart in 1996. In 2003, the U.S. military awarded him the Distinguished Service Cross. Previous efforts to secure the Congressional Medal of Honor failed, but in 2015 he was honored with the award.
1.1 World War I
1.2 Later life and death
2 Medal of Honor
He said that he was born in Winston-Salem, North Carolina on July 15, 1892, when he registered for the World War I draft, but he used other dates on other documents, so he may not have known the exact date of his birth. He moved to Albany, New York when he was in his early teens. He worked as a redcap porter at the Albany Union Station on Broadway.
World War I
Henry Johnson biographical cartoon by Charles Alston, 1943
Johnson in 1918, wearing his Croix de Guerre
Johnson enlisted in the United States Army on June 5, 1917, joining the all-black New York National Guard 15th Infantry Regiment, which, when mustered into Federal service was redesignated as the 369th Infantry Regiment, based in Harlem.
The 369th Infantry joined the 185th Infantry Brigade upon arrival in France, but the unit was relegated to labor service duties instead of combat training. The 185th Infantry Brigade was in turn assigned on January 5, 1918 to the 93rd Infantry Division.
Although General John J. Pershing wished to keep the U.S. Army autonomous, he "loaned" the 369th to the 161st Division of the French Army. Supposedly, the unreported and unofficial reason he was willing to detach the Afro-American/Negro regiments from American command was that vocal and bigoted white American soldiers refused to fight alongside black troops, although they were all American citizens. These regiments suffered considerable harassment by American white soldiers with many dying on American soil at their hands and even denigration by the American Expeditionary Force headquarters which went so far as to release the notorious pamphlet Secret Information Concerning Black American Troops, which "warned" French civilian authorities of the alleged inferior nature and supposed tendencies of African-American troops to commit sexual assaults. Johnson arrived in France on New Year’s Day, 1918.
The French Army and people had no such problem and were happy and welcoming to accept the reinforcements. Among the first regiments to arrive in France, and among the most highly decorated when it returned, was the 369th Infantry (formerly the 15th Regiment New York Guard), which later became famous as the "Harlem Hellfighters." The 369th was an all-black regiment under the command of mostly white officers including their commander, Colonel William Hayward. The idea of a black New York National Guard regiment was first put forward by Charles W. Fillmore, a black New Yorker. Governor Charles S. Whitmore, inspired by the brave showing of the black 10th Cavalry in Mexico, eventually authorized the project. He appointed Col. William Hayward to carry out the task of organizing the unit, and Hayward gave Fillmore a commission as a captain in the 15th Infantry Regiment, New York National Guard. The 15th New York Infantry Regiment became the 369th United States Infantry Regiment prior to engaging in combat in France.
The 369th got off to a rocky departure from the United States, making three attempts over a period of months to sail for France before finally getting out of sight of land. Even then, their transport, which had stopped and anchored because of a sudden snow storm which arose before they could get out of the harbor, was struck by another ship due to the poor visibility. The captain of the transport, the Pocahontas, wanted to turn back, much to the dismay of his passengers. The by now angry and impatient members of the 369th, led by Col. Hayward, took a very dim view of any further delay. Since the damage to the ship was well above the water line, the ship's captain admitted that there was no danger of sinking. Col. Hayward then informed the captain that he saw no reason to turn back except cowardice. Col Hayward's men repaired the damage themselves and the ship sailed on, battered but undaunted. According to Col. Hayward’s notes, they “landed at Brest. Right side up” on December 27, 1917. They acquitted themselves well once they finally got to France. However, it was a while before they saw combat.
The French Army assigned Johnson's regiment to Outpost 20 on the edge of the Argonne Forest in the Champagne region of France and equipped them with French rifles and helmets. While on guard duty on May 14, 1918, Private Johnson came under attack by a large German raider party, which may have numbered as many as 24 German soldiers. Johnson displayed uncommon heroism when, using grenades, the butt of his rifle, a bolo knife, and his bare fists, he repelled the Germans, thereby rescuing Needham Roberts from capture and saving the lives of his fellow soldiers. Johnson suffered 21 wounds during this ordeal. This act of valor earned him the nickname of "Black Death", as a sign of respect for his prowess in combat.
The story of Johnson's exploits first came to national attention in an article by Irvin S. Cobb entitled "Young Black Joe" published in the August 24, 1918 Saturday Evening Post.
Returning home, now Sergeant Johnson participated (with his regiment) in a victory parade on Fifth Avenue in New York City in February 1919. Sergeant Johnson was then paid to take part in a series of lecture tours. He appeared one evening in St. Louis and instead of delivering the expected tale of racial harmony in the trenches, he instead revealed the abuse which black soldiers had suffered, such as white soldiers refusing to share trenches with blacks. Soon after this a warrant was issued for Johnson's arrest for wearing his uniform beyond the prescribed date of his commission and paid lecturing engagements dried up.
Later life and death
Veterans Bureau records show that a "permanent and total disability" rating was granted to Johnson on September 16, 1927 as a result of his tuberculosis. Additional Veterans Bureau records refer to Johnson receiving monthly compensation and regular visits by Veterans Bureau medical personnel until his death.
He died on July 1, 1929 in Washington, DC of myocarditis. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery on July 6, 1929, where he remains today.
Medal of Honor
On June 2, 2015, President Barack Obama presented the Medal of Honor to Command Sgt. Maj. Louis Wilson of the New York National Guard on behalf of Private Johnson. The award was presented to Command Sgt. Maj. Louis Wilson instead of next-of-kin due to Private Johnson having no living relatives. The official citation reads:
The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, March 3, 1863, has awarded in the name of Congress the Medal of Honor to
Private Henry Johnson
United States Army
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Private Johnson distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of Company C, 369th Infantry Regiment, 93rd Division, American Expeditionary Forces, during combat operations against the enemy on the front lines of the Western Front in France on May 15, 1918. Private Johnson and another soldier were on sentry duty at a forward outpost when they received a surprise attack from a German raiding party consisting of at least 12 soldiers. While under intense enemy fire and despite receiving significant wounds, Private Johnson mounted a brave retaliation, resulting in several enemy casualties. When his fellow soldier was badly wounded, Private Johnson prevented him from being taken prisoner by German forces. Private Johnson exposed himself to grave danger by advancing from his position to engage an enemy soldier in hand-to-hand combat. Wielding only a knife and gravely wounded himself, Private Johnson continued fighting and took his Bolo knife and stabbed it through an enemy soldier’s head. Displaying great courage, Private Johnson held back the enemy force until they retreated. Private Johnson’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
The French government awarded Johnson the Croix de Guerre with special citation and a golden palm. This was France's highest award for bravery and he was the first American to receive it.
In 1919 co-founder of the American Legion Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., son of former United States President Theodore Roosevelt, referred to Johnson as one of the “five bravest Americans” to have served in World War I.
Interest in obtaining fitting recognition for Johnson grew during the 1970s and 1980s. In November 1991 a monument was erected in Albany, New York's Washington Park in his honor, and a section of Northern Boulevard was renamed Henry Johnson Boulevard.
In June 1996, Johnson was posthumously awarded the Purple Heart by President Bill Clinton. In February 2003, the Distinguished Service Cross, the Army's second highest award, was presented to Herman A. Johnson, one of the Tuskegee Airmen, on behalf of his father. John Howe, a Vietnam War veteran who had campaigned tirelessly for recognition for Johnson, and U.S. Army Major General Nathaniel James, President of the 369th Veterans' Association, were present at the ceremony in Albany.
In December 2004 the Postal facility at 747 Broadway was renamed the "United States Postal Service Henry Johnson Annex".
On September 4, 2007 the City of Albany dedicated the Henry Johnson Charter School. Johnson's granddaughter was in attendance.
A 1918 commercial poster honoring Johnson's wartime heroics was the subject of an 2012 episode of the PBS television series History Detectives.
As of December 3, 2014, the national defense bill included a provision, added by Senator Chuck Schumer, to award Johnson the Medal of Honor.
On May 14, 2015, the White House announced that Sgt. Johnson would be receiving the Medal of Honor posthumously, presented by President Barack Obama. In the June 2nd ceremony, Johnson's medal was received on his behalf by the Command Sgt. Maj. Louis Wilson of the New York National Guard. Obama said, “The least we can do is to say, ‘We know who you are, we know what you did for us. We are forever grateful.’”
For many years, it was thought that Herman Archibald Johnson was the son of Henry Johnson. In tracking Henry Johnson's genealogy prior to his being awarded the Medal of Honor, however, it was discovered that there was not a family connection. Regarding this, the Army was quoted as saying, "While we appreciate the Johnson family fighting for the award and keeping the memory and valorous acts of Henry Johnson alive, we regretfully cannot recognize them as PNOK," or primary next of kin.