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Thursday, 17 September 2015
BLACK SOCIAL HISTORY : EXECUTIVE ORDER 9981 WHICH WAS ISSUED ON 26 JULY 1948 BY PRESIDENT HARRY S. TRUEMAN :
Executive Order 9981 was an executive order issued on July 26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman. It abolished racial discrimination in theUnited States Armed Forces and eventually led to the end of segregation in the services.
In 1947, A. Philip Randolph, along with colleague Grant Reynolds, renewed efforts to end discrimination in the armed services, forming the Committee Against Jim Crow in Military Service and Training, later renamed the League for Non-Violent Civil Disobedience Against Military Segregation.
Truman's Order expanded on Executive Order 8802 by establishing equality of treatment and opportunity in the military for people of all races, religions, or national origins.
The order's operative statement is:
The order also established a committee to investigate and make recommendations to the civilian leadership of the military to implement the policy.
The order eliminated Montford Point as a segregated marine boot camp. It became a satellite facility of Camp Lejeune.
Most of the actual enforcement of the order was accomplished by President Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration (1953-1961), including the desegregation of military schools, hospitals, and bases. The last of the all-black units in the United States military was abolished in September 1954.
Kenneth Claiborne Royall, Secretary of the Army since 1947, was forced into retirement in April 1949 for continuing to refuse to desegregate the army nearly a year after President Truman's Order.