Wednesday, 21 May 2014


                            BLACK                  SOCIAL               HISTORY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 African Slave Trade Patrol[1] was part of the Suppression of the Slave Trade between 1819 and the beginning of theAmerican Civil War in 1861. Due to the abolitionist movement in the United States, a squadron of American navy warships were assigned to catch slave traders in and around Africa. The operations were largely ineffective and after forty-two years only about 100 suspected slave ships were captured.[2][3]



The first American squadron was sent to Africa in 1819 and for several years after the ships were rotated out, there was not a constant American naval presence off Africa until the 1840s. In the two decades between, very few slave ships were captured as there were not enough United States Navy ships to patrol over 3,000 miles of African coastline, as well as the vast American coasts and the ocean in between. Also, the slavers knew that if they hoisted a Spanish or Portuguese flag than they could easily escape pursuit. Congress made it difficult for the navy to keep a small force in Africa until 1842 when the Webster–Ashburton Treaty with Great Britain was signed. Commodore Matthew C. Perry was sent to command the Africa Squadronagain after serving as its commander in 1821 in the USS Shark. His arrival marked the beginning of America's growing effectiveness in the suppression though the overall victories were insignificant compared to Royal Navy operations in the same period. The British captured hundreds of slave ships and fought several naval battles, their success was largely due to the superior size of their navy and colonies located in Africa itself. The combined efforts of both the British and the United States successfully freed thousands of slaves but the trade continued on and the operation was expanded to the West IndiesBraziland the Indian Ocean. The Brazil Squadron, the West Indies Squadron, the East India Squadron and the later Home Squadronwere all responsible for capturing at least a few slavers each.[4][5]

Capture of the Spitfire

"The Abolition of the Slave Trade or the inhumanity of dealers in human flesh exemplified in Captn. Kimber's treatment of a young Negro girl of 15 for her virjen (sic) modesty." by Isaac Cruikshank, 1792.
On 13 June 1844, the brig USS Truxtun was placed back in commission with Commander Henry Bruce in charge. Two weeks later, she sailed down the Delaware River and passed between the capes and into the Atlantic. After visiting FunchalMadeira, the ship joined the African Station off Tenerife in the Canary Islands. For the next sixteen months, Truxtun patrolled off West Africa, visiting MonroviaLiberiaand Sierra Leone, where slaves were freed. Truxtun also sailed to Maio islands of Santiago, and São Vicente. The Americans captured only one slaver on their cruise in 1845, the New Orleans schooner named Spitfire. The vessel was caught on the Rio Pongo in Guinea and was taken without incident. Though she was only about 100 tons, she carried 346 slaves. The Americans also discovered that she had landed 339 slaves near Matanzas, in Cuba, the year before. Commander Bruce reported that "between her decks, where the slaves were packed, there was not room enough for a man to sit, unless inclining his head forward; their food was half a pint of rice per day, with one pint of water. No one can imagine the sufferings of slaves on their passage across, unless the conveyances in which they are taken are examined. A good hearty negroe costs but twenty dollars, or thereabouts, and brings from three to four hundred dollars in Cuba." The capture of the Spitfire gave the American navy the incentive to increase the strength of the Africa Squadron, the ship was also fitted out and used in anti-slavery operations. On October 30, 1845, the Truxtun weighed anchor at Monrovia, and she headed west towardsGosport Navy Yard which she reached on November 23. She was then decommissioned on November 28.[6]

Capture of the Ann D. Richardson and the Independence[edit]

The brig USS Perry served in the South Atlantic with the Brazil Squadron beginning in 1847. Perry got under way from Philadelphia on May 16, 1847 with specific orders to patrol between Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Buenos AiresArgentinaLieutenant John A. Davis was informed that suspected slavers in the American bark Ann D. Richardson were bound for the coast of Africa under false papers. Perrythen seized the ship off Rio de Janeiro on December 16 and two days later, she took the American brig Independence. Investigation proved that both ships had been engaged in the slave trade and were sent to, New YorkNew York as prizes. The captain of theIndependence was outraged about his arrest and even petitioned Commodore George W. Storer but to no avail. The USS Perry returned to Norfolk on July 10, 1849 and decommissioned there four days later. She later served in Africa again but only for a short while until she sailed back to New York.[7][8]

Capture of the Martha[edit]

One of the American's more significant victories in the operation was the capture of the slave ship Martha. On June 6 of 1850, the USSPerry, under Lieutenant Davis, discovered the large ship rigged Martha of Ambriz while she was standing in to shore. Soon after, as thePerry came within gun range, Lieutenant Davis and his men witnessed some of Martha's crew throwing a desk over the side while raising the American flag. The slavers apparently did not realize that the brig was a United States Navy vessel until an officer and a few enlisted men were dispatched. At which time they lowered the American ensign and raised a Brazilian flag. When the officer reached the Martha's deck, the captain denied having any papers so a boat was sent after the desk, which was still floating, and all the necessary evidence was recovered. After that the slaver trader admitted to Davis that he was a United States citizen and his ship was equipped forblackbirding. A hidden deck was found below with a large amount of farina and beans, over 400 wooden spoons, and metal devices used to restrain the slaves. It was also learned that the captain of Martha was expecting a shipment of 1,800 Africans when the Perryappeared. The Martha was sent with a prize crew to New York where she was condemned and the slaver captain paid 3,000 dollars to escape prison.[9]

Capture of the Nightingale of Boston[edit]

"Nightingale", a 1913 picture.
The 1,066 ton clipper ship Nightingale of Boston, originally sailed as part of the American merchant fleet in China before trade in that region became unprofitable during the 1850s. She then became a known slave ship until being seized at St. Thomas on January 14, 1861 by thesloop-of-war USS Saratoga under a Captain Taylor. Taylor later described the slaver, "For some time the American ship Nightingale of BostonFrancis Bowen, master, has been watched on this coast under the suspicion of being engaged in the slave trade. Several times we have fallen in with her and although fully assured that she was about to engage in this illicit trade she has had the benefit of the doubt. A few days ago observing her at Kabenda, I came in and boarded her and was then induced to believe she was then preparing to receive slaves. Under this impression the ship was got under way and went some distance away but with the intention of returning under cover of the night; which was done and at 10 P.M. we anchored and sent two two boats under Lieut. Guthrie to surprise her and it was found that she had 961 slaves on board and was expecting more. Lieut. Guthrie took possession of her as a prize and I have directed him to take her to New York. She is a clipper of 1,000 tons and has Nightingale of Boston on her stern and flies American colors." The slaves were freed and landed at Monrovia in Liberia but not before 160 of them died from African fever aboard the Saratoga. The sickness also spread to the crew. Captain Bowen, who was called the "Prince of Slavers", and his Spanish second mate Valentino Cortino escaped the Nightingale while she was anchored of St. Thomas. Because Lieutenant John J. Guthrie was from North Carolina he was suspected of letting the two go and so they escaped justice. The clipper eventually served in the American Civil War as the storeship USSNightingale in the Gulf Blockading Squadron and was finally abandoned at sea in 1893 while under a Norwegian flag.[10]

End of Operations

The African Slave Patrol campaign streamer.
The United States Navy operations against the slave trade quickly came to an end in 1861 with the outbreak of the American Civil War. Squadrons of vessels, from all over the world, were recalled and reassigned to new blockading forces for the Anaconda Plan. Over the course of several years very few slave ships were captured by American naval forces though they indirectly assisted the major British operation with the same goal. By the end of the Civil War, the African slave trade on the Atlantic diminished though trading overland continued into the next century, primarily in North and Central Africa. For officers who served in Africa between 1820 and 1861, they received the African Slave Patrol campaign streamer.[11][12][13]

Vessels Seized

USS Constellation off Baltimore in 2010, she captured three slave ships.

Africa Squadron

UncasPorpoise1 March 1844Gallinas
SpitfireTruxtun24 March 1845Pongas R.
PatuxentYorktown27 September 1845Cape Mount
PonsYorktown30 September 1845Kabenda
MerchantJamestown3 December 1845Sierra Leone
PantherYorktown15 December 1845Kabenda
Robert WilsonJamestown15 January 1846Porto Praya
MalagaBoxer13 April 1846Kabenda
CasketMarion2 August 1846Kabenda
ChancellorDolphin10 April 1847Cape Palmas
ExcellentJohn Adams23 April 1850Ambriz
MarthaPerry6 June 1850Ambriz
ChatsworthPerry11 September 1850Ambriz
AdvanceGermantown3 November 1852Porto Praya
R.P. BrownGermantown23 January 1853Porto Praya
H.N. GambrillConstitution3 November 1853Kongo
GlamorganPerry10 March 1854Kongo
W.G. LewisDale6 November 1857Kongo
BrothersMarion8 September 1858Mayumba
Julia DeanVincennes28 December 1858Cape Coast Castle
OrionMarion21 April 1859Kongo
ArdennesMarion27 April 1859Kongo
EmilyPortsmouth21 September 1859Loango
DeliciaConstellation21 September 1859Kabenda
VirginianPortsmouth6 February 1860Kongo
FalmouthPortsmouth6 May 1860Porto Praya
Thomas AchornMystic29 June 1860Kabenda
TritonMystic16 July1860Loango
ErieMohican8 August 1860Kongo
Storm KingSan Jacinto8 August 1860Kongo
CoraConstellation26 September 1860Kongo
BonitoSan Jacinto10 October 1860Kongo
ExpressSaratoga25 February 1861Possibly Loango
NightingaleSaratoga21 April 1861Kabenda
TritonConstellation20 May 1861Kongo
FalmouthSumpter14 June 1862Kongo

Brazil Squadron

PorpoiseRaritan23 January 1845Rio de Janeiro
AlbertBainbridgeJune 1845Bahia
LaurensOnkahye23 January 1848Rio de Janeiro
A.D. RichardsonPerry11 December 1848Rio de Janeiro
IndependencePerry13 December 1848Rio de Janeiro
SusanPerry6 February 1849Rio de Janeiro

Home Squadron

PutnamDolphin21 August 1858Cuba
CygnetMohawk18 November 1859Cuba
WildfireMohawk26 April 1860Cuba
WilliamWyandotte9 May 1860Cuba
BogotaCrusader23 May 1860Cuba
W.R. KibbyCrusader23 July1860Cuba
Joven AntonioCrusader14 August 1860Cuba
ToccoaMohawk20 December 1860Havana
Mary J. KimballMohawk21 December 1860Havana