Google+ Badge BLACK SOCIAL HISTORY

Saturday, 24 May 2014

BLACK SOCIAL HISTORY : AFRO-PORTUGUESE ARE DESCENDANTS FROM PEOPLE ISSUING FROM THE FORMER PORTUGUESE AFRICAN COLONIES :

                                BLACK               SOCIAL             HISTORY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Most Afro-Portuguese migrated from or are descendants from people issuing from the former Portuguese African colonies, (Angola,Guinea-BissauSão Tomé and PríncipeCape Verde and Mozambique), even if very small numbers originate in other Sub-Saharan African countries.
These communities arrived in Portugal after the independence of the African colonies, in 1974–75, and mainly after the Portuguese economic growth of the second half of the 1980s. They should not be confused with the population, overwhelmingly white Europeansborn in Portugal, that "returned" from the same colonies immediately after their independence — the so-called retornados(Portuguese settlers and descendants of Portuguese settlers born in former African colonies who relocated to Portugal after independence and in second half of 1980s are also included in this category).
According to the Portuguese Foreigners and Borders Services, in 2006, this is the break-down of Africans legally in Portugal:[2] (see table)
CountryCitizens
Angola33,215
Cape Verde65,485
Guinea-Bissau24,513
Mozambique5,854
São Tomé and Príncipe10,761
other African10,154
Total149,982
Due to the present Portuguese nationality law that privileges Jus sanguinis, most of the Black-Africans in Portugal maintain their respective nationality of origin. In fact, if the nationality law of 1959 was based on the principle of Jus soli, the changes made in 1975 and 1981 changed it to aJus sanguinis law, thus basically denying the possibility naturalization not only to first generation migrants, but also to their children and grandchildren (only very recently, in 2006, was these situation slightly changed, but still stressing Jus sanguinis). Of course, there are some Afro-Portuguese that have Portuguese nationality, but their numbers are not known, since there are no official statistics in Portugal about race or ethnicity.
The arrival of these black Africans in Portugal, coupled with their difficulty in accessing fullcitizenship, enhanced, from the 1970s onwards, the processes of ethnic and racial discriminationin Portuguese society (besides the Africans, also targeting Brazilians and Gypsies).[3][4][5] This is the result of multiple factors, from institutional and juridical, to socio-cultural (the construction of stereotypical ethno-racial differences), residential (with the concentration of black migrants in degraded ghettos) and economical (the poorly qualified professional and educational profile of the migrants). These discrimination processes are concomitant with a strengthening of an ethno-racialist view of Portuguese national identity, even in younger generations,[6][7][8][9] coupled with a parallel strengthening of black identity in African migrants, even surpassing national origins.[10]