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Sunday, 24 May 2015
BLACK SOCIAL HISTORY : AFRICAN AMERICAN " RALPH WALDO TYLER " WAS A JOURNALIST, WAR CORRESPONDENT, GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL, RACE MAN : GOES INTO THE " HALL OF BLACK HEROES "
BLACK SOCIAL HISTORY
Ralph Waldo Tyler (1860–1921) was an African American journalist, war correspondent, government official, race man. He strove for racial justice in the United States and served as the only accredited Black foreign correspondent specifically reporting on African American servicemen stationed in France during World War I. His career began in his hometown of Columbus, Ohio, in the late 1880s where he held several journalistic positions including editor of the Afro-American; co-founding the short-lived African American newspaper, The Free American; contributing a Black news column and serving as society editor at the white-owned Columbus Evening Dispatch and writing for The Ohio State Journal.
Early on, his journalistic skills placed him in constant dialog with Black political and business leaders in the Midwest who were engaged in improving the social standing of African Americans at the height of the Jim Crow laws. In 1906, Tyler actively campaigned for an appointment as United States consul to Brazil. His political activities drew the attention of prominent national Black figures, and in 1907, upon the advice of Booker T. Washington, Tyler was appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt to fill the post of Auditor of the Department of the Navy. He held this post until 1913, when during the early years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency—overlooking the advice of his colleagues—Tyler published a recalcitrant article in the Washington Evening Star speaking out against the President's segregationist policies. Soon afterward, Tyler's governmental post under Wilson ended.
Following his Auditor of the Navy post, Booker T. Washington and his Secretary, Emmett J. Scott, recommended Tyler to be the National Organizer of the National Negro Business League (NNBL), an organization founded by Washington to engage in documenting the state of Black businesses to promote an organized and active League membership. Tyler's position exposed him to societal conditions and concerns of Blacks throughout the country. His role at the NNBL entailed traveling throughout the country, visiting and addressing local branches of the NNBL. His findings were reported in a 1914 syndicated column of the American Press Association and his travels through the Southern U.S. enabled him to undertake a personal study of Negro northbound migration. These reports were eventually published in various U.S. magazines, journals, and newspapers. In 1917, Tyler left this post to serve as Secretary in another organization founded by Washington, The National Colored Soldiers' Comfort Committee, which provided financial support for Black soldiers and their families. Following this position, Tyler became the only African American journalist stationed overseas reporting on Black soldiers.
In 1918, a committee overseen by Emmett J. Scott, (aka, Emmett Jay Scott) who was then serving as the Special Assistant to the U.S. Secretary of War, selected Tyler to be stationed in the northeast Metz region of France along with General John J. Pershing's brigade. Tyler's reports were sent back to the U.S., edited and distributed by Scott to newspapers and journals nationally. Tyler reported from the trenches at the front of the battlefield in Northeastern Metz, France. Later Scott published several of Tyler's reports in Scott's Official History of the American Negro in The World War (1919).
Back in the States, Tyler's reports provided first-hand accounts of the heroic deeds of Black soldiers and boosted the morale of the troops overseas. He also documented discrimination that the Black troops faced at the hands of white American organizations and service personnel and the comparatively unbiased treatment they fared from the French. Following the war, Tyler continued to pursue journalist activities in Ohio, becoming editor of the Cleveland Advocate in 1919, associate editor of the Columbus Ohio State Monitor, and contributing articles to newspapers in New York and Chicago. Numerous letters of Tyler's personal correspondence can be found at the Ohio Historical Society. The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture holds Tyler's business letters and reports from his post as National Director of the National Negro Business League.