Thursday, 28 April 2016


                                                         BLACK      SOCIAL      HISTORY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

One hundred years of the Revolt of the Whip: A fight of race and class
                                                                                                                                                             Julius Condaque and Maristela Farias, the National Secretariat of the Black PSTU
João Cândido reads amnesty decree of rioters
João Cândido was the reference to the revolt of the lash, popular uprising of black sailors occurred on November 22, 1910, in Rio de Janeiro. That's because he had had the opportunity to attend courses in other countries and to witness the working organization and the sailors who made ​​the first naval strike in the Russian Revolution (1908). These international experiences have given him prominence in leading the popular revolt. According to historian Nascimento, other leaders were involved, as Ricardo Freitas, Francisco Dias Martins ( "The Black Hand"), who wrote the threatening letters, Gregory cable, and others. Although the main goal of the revolt be the end of corporal punishment, the sailors also fought for better working conditions, against low wages in the Navy and the discriminatory treatment of elite officers. At that time from the direct struggle of the military armed , which eventually paralyzing the river - then the capital of the country - for a week, the bourgeoisie was forced to bow to the demands of the sailors. Corporal punishment "would be" the last still existing link with the imperial era and the slave system, despite already having passed 22 years of the abolition of slavery. But the sailors who made ​​history were erased from the past of Brazil, for being black . It is important to remember that these black and poor workers included in their claims several other of the working class in general, in a scenario where the elites criminalized the workers ' struggles, which were beginning in the formation of workers' base unions. This fight had a partial victory, but it was celebrated by sailors with a "live freedom." However, it was short - lived, because the current power of the conservative elites regrouped to attack the leaders of the revolt a month later. The military elites had no way to order the immediate arrest of the sailors amnestied. But, taking advantage of an episode happened in Rio Grande do Sul, a new uprising of sailors that was not successful, launched their attack on the leaders of the revolt of the lash. In November, the amnestied sailors were then numbered, through events such as tickets and complaints made ​​by direct superior of the Navy. The government Hermes da Fonseca managed to install a state of siege and ordered the arrest of the 18 sailors of the revolt, including João Cândido. They were then sent to the prison in Snake Island, where many were tortured and killed. The horror of the prison led João Cândido to be admitted to the National Hospice for the Insane sanity tests, staying 22 days in this institution. There was a whole scenario of increased workload and little appreciation of the subaltern classes. The Brazilian government used that time the coming process of European immigrants to the population of laundering policy with the land and housing incentives to Europeans. This policy has been used as a way of fragmenting and put differences between the working class to better exploit and oppress. The João Cândido amnesty law has increased the contradiction of the Brazilian State, which uses the myth of racial democracy (all are equal before the law ) to try to erase the past crimes. Even today, you can see history repeat itself, at the hands of Lula. Recently, the government - with the support of some black organizations - celebrated the approval of a status of "racial equality" emptied of its key proposals without quotas for blacks in universities, parties and public service, excluding the guarantee of the right the titling of quilombos and indigenous lands without the defense and the right to freedom of practice of African - based religions. the status also takes no position on the protection of black youth, suffering real genocide by the military police of the states in especially in Rio de Janeiro, where there is an ethnic cleansing policy (preparing the city for the World Cup and the Olympics). Also, does not characterize slavery and racism as crimes against humanity, according to international agreement to which the Brazilian government is asignatory. By itself, the statute is already a throwback to all the advances we try to win over the years. Under the justification of the establishment of a legal framework that wouldrepresent the recognition of racial inequality in Brazil, it was in fact approved a document of suggestions to the State.