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Wednesday, 13 April 2016

BLACK SOCIAL HISTORY - AFRICAN AMERICAN " CURT ROBERTS " WAS AN AMERICAN BASEBALL SECOND BASEMAN WHO PLAYED THREE SEASONS FOR THE PITTSBURGH PIRATES IN THE MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL FROM 1954 TO 1956 - GOES INTO THE " HALL OF BLACK GENIUS "



             BLACK      SOCIAL    HISTORY                                                                                                                                                                                          














































































































Curt Roberts
Curt Roberts
Second baseman
Born: August 16, 1929
Pineland, Texas
Died: November 14, 1969 (aged 40)
Oakland, California
Batted: Right
Threw: Right
MLB debut
April 13, 1954, for the Pittsburgh Pirates
Last MLB appearance
June 8, 1956, for the Pittsburgh Pirates
MLB statistics
Batting average
.223
Home runs
1
Runs batted in
40
Teams
Negro leagues
Kansas City Monarchs (1947–1950)
Major League Baseball
Pittsburgh Pirates (1954–1956)
Curtis "Curt" Benjamin Roberts (August 16, 1929 – November 14, 1969) was an American baseball second baseman who played three seasons for the Pittsburgh Pirates in Major League Baseball from 1954 to 1956. He was signed by the Boston Braves as an amateur free agent before the 1951 season, and obtained by Pittsburgh a year later. After two seasons in the Pirates farm system, Roberts was the first black Major League player for the Pirates. After becoming the starting second baseman for the Pirates in his rookie year, Roberts' playing time decreased and he was out of the Majors within three seasons. He played for multiple teams in the minor leagues before retiring from professional baseball in 1963.
A native of Pineland, Texas, but raised in Oakland, California, Roberts was considered short by Major League standards, standing 5 ft 8 in (1.73 m). Roberts was a skilled defensive player who could not hit with enough proficiency to remain in the major leagues. Roberts died when an automobile struck him while he was changing a tire on his car. His former Pirates teammates only learned of his death 20 years later when being interviewed for a newspaper article. Although Roberts' career was short, it paved the way for other black players to debut for the Pirates, the most notable of whom was future Baseball Hall of Famer Roberto Clemente.
Contents
 
1Early professional career
2Major League career
3Later career
4Post-baseball and death
5Playing style and statistics
6Legacy
Early professional career
Roberts was born in Pineland, Texas but grew up in Oakland, California. He attended McClymonds High School in West Oakland, the same high school future professional athletes Frank Robinson, Vada Pinson, Bill Russell and Curt Flood all went to within a few years of each other.[1] Soon after finishing high school at the age of 17, Roberts began his professional career with the Kansas City Monarchs in the Negro Leagues.[2][3] He played four seasons (1947–1950) with the Monarchs, where his teammates included Satchel Paige, Hilton Smith, Buck O'Neil and Elston Howard.[4] Roberts was signed by the Boston Braves in 1951 by the recommendation of scout Andy Cohen, who saw him play in theMexican League during the 1950 off-season.[5] They sent Roberts to their minor leagues affiliate in the Western League, the Denver Bears where Cohen was the manager.[3][6]Prior to the 1952 season, the Bears became an affiliate of the Pittsburgh Pirates, and as part of a working agreement between the Braves and the Pirates, Roberts became a member of the Pirates organization for a $10,000 sum.[3][6] Originally a shortstop in the Negro Leagues, he became a second baseman during his tenure with the Bears, and started to build a reputation as an excellent fielder, leading all minor league second basemen in fielding percentage in 1953.[7] He stayed with the Bears for the next two seasons, playing a combined total of 280 games with 15 home runs and a .285 batting average.[3]
Major League career
Prior to the 1954 Pittsburgh Pirates season, the local black community in Pittsburgh pressurized the team to integrate their roster, as other teams such as the Brooklyn Dodgersand New York Giants had done.[8] To speed up the integration, the black community began to protest against the Pirates and boycotted Pirate home games.[8] The general manager of the Pirates at the time was Branch Rickey, who seven years earlier as general manager of the Dodgers signed Jackie Robinson, the first black Major League Baseball player. After playing two years in the Pirates minor league system, Roberts made his major league debut on April 13, 1954 at Forbes Field, against the Philadelphia Phillies to become the first black player in Pirates' history. Prior to the game Rickey gave a speech to Roberts and his wife that was similar to that he gave to Robinson before his first game in 1947.[8] In the speech, Rickey explained to Roberts that he needed to have a "very even temper" in order to succeed in the Major Leagues as racial abuse from the spectators was a common occurrence.[8] Rickey later said that he selected Roberts to become the Pirates first black player owing to his skills and calm demeanor.[2][8] In his first major league at bat, Roberts tripled against starting pitcher Robin Roberts.[8] He also had a double in the game. Roberts hit his only career home run off St. Louis Cardinalsstarter Joe Presko in an 8–5 win on June 11.[9] He scored three runs, including the winning run in an August 6 game against the Cincinnati Reds.[10][11] On September 8, Roberts' two errors against the Milwaukee Braves proved costly, as the Braves won their 10th game in a row.[12] Roberts finished the 1954 season as the primary starter at second base, batting .232 with one home run and 36 runs batted in (RBI) in 134 games.[6]
Roberts started the 1955 season in a slump. In his first six games, Roberts only had two hits in 18 at-bats for a batting average of .118.[6] On April 17, in one of the few games he started that season, Roberts' wild throw to third base led to a Brooklyn Dodgers run, the decisive factor in a 3–2 Pirates loss.[13] It was thought that the racial pressure on Roberts was affecting his ability, so to help him, Dodgers second baseman Jackie Robinson wrote a letter to Roberts discussing how to handle his emotions and offering words of encouragement.[8] However, Roberts was soon demoted back to the minor leagues and spent the rest of the 1955 season with the Hollywood Stars in the Pacific Coast League. While with the Stars Roberts broke the Pacific Coast League record for most consecutive games without an error at second base with 40.[14] He also missed playing time after suffering a concussion when he was hit by a pitch delivered by Bubba Church.[15]
Roberts and teammate Johnny O'Brien competed for the second base job prior to the 1956 season.[16] Roberts played 31 games at the beginning of the year, hitting .177 with four runs batted in, mostly in a backup role, before losing his job to future Baseball Hall of Famer Bill Mazeroski.[6] On May 1, Roberts succeeded in getting a game-winning, two-RBI, ninth-inning double off "Vinegar Bend" Mitzell of the St. Louis Cardinals.[17] Two days later, Roberts made his last career RBI, a double in the fourth inning in a 5–1 victory over the Cincinnati Reds.[18]
Later career
Roberts was traded to the Kansas City Athletics with pitcher Jack McMahan for Spook Jacobs and $5,000 cash. He never played a game with the Athletics, who soon sent him to the Columbus Jets of the International League in late June 1956.[6] Neither Jacobs nor McMahan lasted beyond the 1956 season in the Majors. After being traded to the Athletics, Pittsburgh's main black newspaper, the Pittsburgh Courier, protested that Roberts never had a real chance in the Majors.[8] However, Pirates general manager Joe L. Brown replied that Roberts was a "fine young man, but a marginal Major Leaguer".[8] On August 28, Roberts hit four home runs in one game against the Havana Sugar Kings, becoming only the fifth player in International League history to do so.[19] He had struck only four home runs in 69 previous games with the Jets.[19] Prior to the 1957 season, Roberts was traded to the New York Yankees as the player to be named later in a trade that sent former American League Most Valuable Player Bobby Shantz to the Yankees.[6]In 1957 Roberts played with the New York Yankees minor league affiliate in Denver. At the end of the season, Roberts received several votes in the final tally for Most Valuable Player of the American Association, finishing behind Carl Willey of the Wichita Braves.[20] Roberts never again reached the Majors, becoming a journeyman in the minor leagues and at one point played baseball in Nicaragua.[8]
Roberts played with the Montreal Royals of the International League in 1959, where he led the league in fielding percentage with .987 and was named the Royals Most Valuable Player.[21] He was also selected to the International League All-Star game that season.[22] In 1960, Roberts was acquired by the Spokane Indians, a Dodger affiliate after he was made expandable by the Royals when they acquired Chico Carrasquel.[21] He was selected to the Pacific Coast League All-Star squad in 1961.[23] One week later Roberts suffered a broken leg after colliding with teammate Duke Carmel on the field during a game, practically ending his career.[24] He played two more seasons in the minors, but his playing ability was diminished by the injury and Roberts retired from baseball after the 1963 season.[3][8]
Post-baseball and death
Roberts was married with six children.[8] When his baseball career ended, he worked as a security guard for the University of California, Berkeley.[2][8] He died at the age of 40 in Oakland, California when he was hit by a drunk driver while changing a flat tire on his car.[8] A major piece written by Pittsburgh Post-Gazette journalist Ed Bouchette discussed Roberts' career and struggles, calling him a "forgotten pioneer". Prior to the piece, most of Roberts' old teammates were unaware that Roberts had died nearly 20 years earlier.[8]His son Curt Roberts Jr. supposedly was working on a book about his father's life in 1987.[8]
Playing style and statistics
Roberts was considered by critics to be an excellent fielder.[8] By 1960, Roberts was considered to be one of the best second baseman in the minor leagues, primary because he was a "slick fielder".[21] Former teammate Nellie King called Roberts the best handler of "chopper[s]" (a slang for a ground out) he had ever seen.[8] According to King, the main reason why Roberts had a short career in the Majors is that the Pirates "didn't gave him enough time" to develop his skills.[8]
Roberts could not hit with enough proficiency to remain in the Major Leagues.[25] He had a reputation of not "hitting the big-league curve".[8] In his three seasons with the Pirates, Roberts had a career .223 batting average (128-for-575) with one home run, four runs batted in, 54 runs scored, and an on-base percentage of .299.[6] In his 164 appearances at second base, he handled 856 out of 883 total chances successfully for a fielding percentage of .969, a little lower than the league average during his era.[6]
Legacy
Despite Roberts' short major league career, he paved the way for other black players to debut for the Pirates, the most notable of whom was future Baseball Hall of FamerRoberto Clemente.[2][8] He befriended Clemente, teaching him how to handle the racial abuse and the huge pressure that Roberts had suffered with the Pirates.[8] That helped Clemente ease his transition from the Dodgers minor league system, in which they had a decent number of black and Hispanic players, to the main roster of the Pittsburgh Pirates, in which only he, Roberts and third baseman Gene Baker were black.[2][8] Journalist Tom Singer of MLB.com mentioned that Roberts' legacy arose mainly from his unsuccessful career with the Pirates. Singer claimed because Roberts was a "flop", it showed that the public perception of black players having to be a "superstar" to be a member of a Major League club was incorrect, thus making the integration process more "humanized" and easier for black players.[2] With the eight previous players who broke the color barrier for their respective teams, four were later elected to the Hall of Fame, and the other four were stars in their own right.[2]
In 1997, 28 years after his death, the Pittsburgh Pirates honored Roberts as part of the festivities for Jackie Robinson Day.[26] Roberts was honored again in 2006 for the opening of the Pirates Highmark Legacy Square Negro League exhibit in PNC Park. The families of several Negro League players, including Roberts attended the ceremony.[27] A park in his hometown of Pineland, Texas was dedicated in his honor in 2007.[2]
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George Eleady-Cole

Shared publicly  -  Yesterday 8:51 PM
 
THE  BLACK  MARTYR  HISTORY                     COLLECTION                                                                                                               François Tombalbaye

THE  BLACK  MARTYR  HISTORY  COLLECTION
N'Garta Tombalbaye
1st President of Chad
In office
August 11, 1960 – April 13, 1975
Prime Minister
None
Succeeded by
Noël Milarew Odingar
(as interim head of state)
Colonial Prime Minister of Chad
In office
March 26, 1959 – August 11, 1960
Preceded by
Ahmed Koulamallah
(as President of Provisional Govt.)
Succeeded by
Hissène Habré
(as PM of independent Chad)
Personal details
Born
François Tombalbaye
June 15, 1918
Moyen-Chari, French Chad
Died
April 13, 1975 (aged 56)
N'Djamena, Chad
Political party
PPT (1947-1973)
MNRCS (1973-1975)
Profession
Professor
Trade unionist
Religion
Christian[citation needed]
Signature
Military service
Allegiance
Free French Forces
Battles/wars
World War II
François Tombalbaye (June 15, 1918 – April 13, 1975), also called N'Garta Tombalbaye from 1973 until his death, was a teacher and a trade union activist who served as the first president of Chad. The head of Chad's colonial government and its ruling party, theChadian Progressive Party, after 1959, Tombalbaye was appointed the nation's head of government after its independence on August 11, 1960. He ruled as a dictator until his deposition and assassination by members of the Chadian military in 1975.
Contents
  
1Biography
1.1Early life
1.2Political career
Biography
Early life
Tombalbaye was born on June 15, 1918 in Moyen-Chari Prefecture in the southern region of the French colony of Chad, close to the city of Koumara. He was of the Sara ethnic group, the prominent ethnicity of Chad's five southern prefectures. As a young man, Tombalbaye studied to become an educator in the Republic of Congo's capital of Brazzaville, due to the lack of in-country schools.
During World War II, Tombalbaye fought for Free France against the Nazi-backed Vichy regime.
Political career
Tombalbaye succeeded Gabriel Lisette as head of the Chadian Progressive Party (PPT), heading Chad's colonial government from 1959. He ruled the country during its independence on August 11, 1960, and was appointed its first head of government.
Tombalbaye managed to create a coalition of progressive forces from both the north and south of the country and isolating the more conservative Islamic factions in the center as a colonial legislator. After independence he adopted an autocratic form of government, eliminated opposition both within his party and outside his party by banning all other political parties. In 1963 Tombalbaye dissolved the National Assembly in response to rioting. He began nationalizing the civil service, replacing French administrators with less competent locals. He imposed a "National Loan", greatly increasing taxing, to fund the nationalization.
In October, 1968 Tombalbaye was a guest of President Lyndon B. Johnson in Washington, D.C. Following brief talks with Johnson, he traveled to Texas, meeting with research scientists at ICASALS (International Center for Arid and Semiarid Land Studies), part ofTexas Tech University.
Tombalbaye's Africanization program failed to account for the large population in the north and center of the country, who wereMuslim and did not identify with the Christian and animist south. The Gorane saw independence as a shift of control from French colonials to the south. On November 1, 1965, riots in Guéra Prefecture led to 500 deaths. This sparked a series of disturbances throughout the north and center of the country, compounded by involvement by Chad's neighbors, Libya to the north and Sudan to the east. The most prominent movement in this period was the FROLINAT, or 'National Liberation Front of Chad', based in Sudan. Though FROLINAT was plagued by rivalry and division, it was able to resist Tombalbaye's authoritarianism. Tombalbaye called upon France, Chad's former colonial power, for assistance, citing treaties two countries had signed at independence.
France agreed to enter the fray, provided that Tombalbaye initiate a series of reforms to the army, government, and civil service. Taxes and laws imposed arbitrarily by Tombalbaye were to be rescinded, and the country's traditional sultans had their role as tax collectors restored, for which they received 10% of the income. He agreed to France's terms in 1969 and Chad embarked on a gradual liberalization process. In elections in 1969, several hundred political prisoners were released from prison, but Tombalbaye was still the only candidate on the ballot.
A further sign of liberalization came in 1971, when Tombalbaye admitted to the Congress of the PPT that he had made mistakes. Steps were taken to reform the government, and more Gorane were included in his new government. Order seemed to have been restored, and France withdrew its troops from the country.
President Tombalbaye marching in a parade celebrating the tenth anniversary of independence.
Progress came to a grinding halt in August 1971, when an attempted coup d'état with links to Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi was uncovered. Tombalbaye immediately severed relations with his northern neighbor and even allowed anti-Qadhafi forces to operate from his territory. In return, Qadhafi granted formal recognition and aid to what remained of the FROLINAT opposition to Tombalbaye. Meanwhile, in the south, where Tombalbaye had his greatest support, he responded to a strike by students by replacing the popular Chief of Staff Jacques Doumro with Colonel Félix Malloum. Chad was in the grip of a crippling drought, and Tombalbaye rescinded his amnestyto political prisoners. By the end of 1972, over 1,000 political prisoners had been arrested. At the same time, he also made overtures to the Arab world, reducing Libyan support for, and fomenting infighting in, FROLINAT.
Nevertheless, Tombalbaye felt insecure with his own government as well. Tombalbaye arrested major PPT leaders, including Malloum, for allegedly using witchcraft to overthrow him in what was known as the "Black Sheep Plot," for the animals they allegedly sacrificed. In August, Tombalbaye disbanded the PPT and replaced it with the National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution (MNRCS). Under the guise of authenticité, the new movement promoted Africanization: the capital of Fort-Lamy was renamed N'Djamena and Tombalbaye himself changed his given name from François to Ngarta. Christianity was disparaged, missionaries were expelled, and all non-Muslim males in the south between the ages of sixteen and fifty were required to undergo traditional initiation rites known as yondo in order to gain promotion in the civil service and the military. These rites, however, were native to only one of Chad's ethnic groups, Tombalbaye's own Sara people, and even then, only to a subgroup of that people. To everyone else, the rituals were harsh and foreign.
Meanwhile, the drought worsened throughout Africa, so in order to improve the dismal economy, people were forced to "volunteer" in a major effort to increase cotton production. With his support in the south diminished, Tombalbaye lashed out at the army, making arbitrary promotions and demotions. Finally, on April 13, 1975, after some of the country's leading officers had been arrested for involvement in an alleged coup, a group of soldiers killed Tombalbaye and installed Félix Malloum, by then a general, as the new head of state.
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George Eleady-Cole

Shared publicly  -  Yesterday 7:23 PM
 
 THE  BLACK  MARTYR  HISTORY  COLLECTION                                                                                                                                                             The Congo of America: The Slave Trade of Washington, D.C.
BY TINGBA MUHAMMAD -GUEST COLUMNIST
What's your opinion on this article?
The first president with an African name, Barack Obama, lives at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. But the fact is Africans have always been in and around the District of Columbia for many generations before the first Obama came to America. In fact, the area where he took the oath of office in 2009 is the location of the tent city that housed the builders of the capital. And more than four hundred of the six hundred carpenters, masons, artisans and skilled laborers—more than two thirds—were enslaved Black Africans. The building of Washington required the importation of so many highly skilled Black craftsmen, that the District became known as “the Congo of America.” And as they toiled to erect the home of their oppressors, including the Capitol—the seat of the most corrupt body of misleaders in the annals of time—could these Black builders have contemplated an Obama as the future head of such a government?
A close reading of the newspaper advertisements placed by American slave traders shows that Blacks were skilled craftsmen at the highest level. It is easy to find ads by White people selling “engineers,” “carpenters,” “mechanics,” “brick masons,” “nurses,” “blacksmiths,” and “bakers.” Blacks so dominated these trades that after the so-called emancipation in 1863, it was said that if a White man were seen doing ANY of this kind of work, it would draw a crowd of gawking onlookers. Blacks built America—just as they built the pyramids in Egypt and then gave civilization to Europe.
The U.S. Constitution forbade the trans-Atlantic slave trade after 1808. This gave rise to the false assumption that there was significant anti-slavery sentiment among America’s leaders. The fact is that the internal trade in Blacks bred by White Americans, such as those 350 slaves on George Washington’s plantation, provided such a large profit that White America would not permit any foreign competition in slaves from Africa. This prohibition only accelerated the domestic slave-breeding trade, which only increased and intensified the unceasing hell Black women suffered as “breeders.” The District trade was small until this point, but when cotton planters of the Deep South could no longer get field hands from Africa, the trade in Black human beings swelled exponentially in Washington.

An assortment of White slave traders operated from the many tavern barrooms in Washington, D.C., including the slave-trading firm that became the largest in the country for an eight-year period, Franklin & Armfield. By 1830, the capital city served as a depot for the wholesale traders who marched their chained and shackled Africans right past the Capitol, even while the Congress sat in session. One observer wrote, “The auction block, the lash, and the manacled gangs on their way to the Deep South were as much a part of Washington as the steamy climate, the malaria, the marshes, and the dust.”
D.C. Slave Pens and Auction Blocks
The United States government not only condoned the slave trade in the District but also afforded the traders every public accommodation. For 34¢ per day the federal jails could be rented by the traders to house the slaves headed for market. White criminals would sometimes have to wait for accommodations in favor of the more lucrative traffic in Black slaves. In one five-year period in the 1820s, 742 Blacks had been kept at the jails in Washington, not one of whom had been accused or convicted of a crime.
In the Christmas season of 1837, a “free” Black woman and her four young children were torn from their husband and father and locked in the District jail to be held for shipment to the South. Distraught and afraid, she resolved that her babies would not grow up as slaves and proceeded to kill them with her bare hands. Two of her children died before she could be restrained. She was tried for murder and acquitted on grounds of insanity. Her White enslaver returned her to her previous owner for breach of warranty—she had been “warranted sound, mind and body.”
The privately owned slave pens, called “Georgia Pens,” were no less revolting. These jails were the scenes of endless tragedies and gruesome horrors—with full government sanction. One of those dungeons was known as Williams Private Jail (a.k.a. The Yellow House). It was between 7th and 8th Streets, just south of the Smithsonian Institution grounds, not far from the site of the 1995 Million Man March.
Owned by William H. Williams, the jail was described as a three-story brick dwelling, covered with plaster, painted yellow and standing in full sight of the Capitol. (Ever wonder why so many Blacks today are named Williams?) The “Yellow House” enjoyed “a virtual monopoly of the private-jail business.” Williams’ success was so rapid that before the end of 1836 he had purchased two slave ships, named “Tribune” and “Uncas.” In 1841, trader James H. Birch kidnapped and drugged Solomon Northrup, a “free” Black man, before stowing him at the Yellow House and shipping him to New Orleans. In 1850, one observer found a number of children, “kept here for a short time to fatten.” Shortly after, the Yellow House was sold and the purchaser found staples driven into its walls where Blacks were “chained like wild animals.” This horrifying reality represents the true nature of this nation’s origins—and the unfortunate lot of those great Black builders of this nation’s capital who are the very source of the wealth and power of today’s rulers.
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George Eleady-Cole

Shared publicly  -  Apr 11, 2016
 
THE  BLACK  MARTYR  HISTORY                    COLLECTION                                                                                                                      Black Uhuru

Black Uhuru
Background information
Also known as
Uhuru, Black Sounds Uhuru
Origin
Kingston, Jamaica
Genres
Reggae, dub
Years active
1972–present
Labels
Taxi, Island, Ras
Associated acts
Sly and Robbie
Members
Derrick "Duckie" Simpson
Andrew Bees[1]
Past members
Don Carlos
Garth Dennis
Puma Jones
Errol "Tarzan" Nelson
Jenifah Nyah
Junior Reid
Michael Rose
Frank Stepanek
Sly Dunbar
Robbie Shakespeare
Vince Black
Black Uhuru are a Jamaican reggae group formed in 1972, initially as Uhuru (Swahili for 'freedom'). The group has undergone several line-up changes over the years, with Derrick "Duckie" Simpson as the mainstay. They had their most successful period in the 1980s, with their album Anthem winning the first ever Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album in 1985.
Contents
 
1History
2Appearances in other media
3Discography
History
The group formed in the Waterhouse district of Kingston in 1972, initially called simply "Uhuru" (the Swahili word for freedom), with a line-up of Garth Dennis, Don Carlos, and Derrick "Duckie" Simpson.[2] Their first release was a cover version of Curtis Mayfield's "Romancing to the Folk Song", which was followed by "Time is on Our Side"; Neither song was a success and they split up, with Carlos pursuing a solo career, as did Dennis, before joining The Wailing Souls.[2] Simpson also briefly worked with the Wailing Souls, before forming a new version of Uhuru with Errol Nelson (of The Jayes) and Michael Rose, the group now taking the name Black Sounds Uhuru.[3] Their Prince Jammy-produced debut album, Love Crisis, was released in 1977.
Nelson returned to The Jayes in late 1977, and was replaced the following year by Sandra "Puma" Jones, a social workerfrom South Carolina, US, who had previously worked as a dancer for Ras Michael & the Sons of Negus, and as a member of the group Mama Africa.[3][4] The band now took on their most familiar name, Black Uhuru.[3] The group began working extensively with Sly and Robbie, and recorded a string of successful singles, including "General Penitentiary" a re-recording of Rose's solo hit "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner", and "Shine Eye Gal", which featured guest guitarist Keith Richards.[5] The group's second album Showcase drew on these singles, and the band cemented their status with a performance at the 1980 Reggae Sunsplash festival.[5] They planned to record an album with Dennis Brown producing, but this didn't materialise, although two singles, "Wood for My Fire" and "Rent Man", were released.[5] They were signed by Island Records in 1980, who issued the Sinsemilla album to an international audience in 1981. The follow-up, Red reached number 28 in the UK Albums Chart in 1981, Chill Out reached number 38 a year later, and they toured with The Rolling Stones.[5][6] In 1989, their albumRed was ranked No. 23 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "100 greatest albums of the 1980s."[7] Their next studio album, Anthem, appeared in 1984, and won the first everGrammy Award for Best Reggae Album the following year.[5][8]
Despite this success, Rose left the group to resume his solo career after falling out with Simpson,[9] and was replaced by Junior Reid. They signed to RAS Records and moved in a different direction with the album Brutal and the single "The Great Train Robbery", the latter recorded with New York dance producer Arthur Baker.[5] Although these alienated much of their roots reggae following, Brutal was nominated for a Grammy and "The Great Train Robbery" gave them their second UK hit single, reaching number 62.[6] The band began to disintegrate; their next album with Jammy was started but never completed, they stopped working with Sly and Robbie, and Jones left the band due to ill health (she died in 1990 from cancer).[5] Her replacement was Janet "Olafunke" Reid, and the group returned in 1988 with the Positive album.[5] Reid was unable to obtain a US visa, and unable to tour, left the band, followed shortly by Olafunke.[5]
Black Uhuru, now reduced to Simpson alone, had been booked to play at an awards ceremony in California, which coincidentally had original Uhuru members Don Carlos and Garth Dennis on the bill, and they took the opportunity to reunite the original line-up for a performance at the event, and decided to continue afterwards.[5] The Now album followed in 1991, and was also nominated for a Grammy. In 1996 the group fragmented again, with Simpson leaving to tour Europe with dub poet Yasus Afari, under the name Black Uhuru, while Carlos and Dennis also toured the US under the same name.[10] A legal battle over the name followed, won by Simpson in 1997. Carlos resumed his solo career, while Simpson formed a new line-up of Black Uhuru with Andrew Bees and Jennifer Connally.[10] Only one album, Dynasty, was released before Bees went back to pursue his solo career in 2003.
In February 2004, it was announced in the Jamaican press that Simpson and Michael Rose had reunited under the name "Black Uhuru feat. Michael Rose".[9] Together with a female backing singer named Kay Starr, they released a single, "Dollars", and performed at several concerts including "Western Consciousness 2004" on 28 April in Jamaica, of which a live video was released shortly thereafter. A new album was reported to be in progress, although it was never released. The group toured throughout Europe in 2006.
In 2008, Simpson took on lead vocal duties, and the group recorded a new album, As The World Turns, with guest appearances from Latin superstars Aterciopelados and Jarabe De Palo, although this was still unreleased a year later.[11] A 25th Anniversary Edition DVD of their Live in London concert was released in June 2008. In 2011 with new vital blood the legendary group featuring Derrick "Duckie" Simpson, Andrew Bees, Kaye Starr, are touring the US first time since 2002 with successful shows and festivals Worldwide.
Appearances in other media
Black Uhuru's song "Great Train Robbery" from the album Brutal appears in the Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas video game soundtrack, on the fictitious radio station K-Jah West, another song, "Guess who's coming to dinner" appears in the Scarface video game soundtrack and in the movie The Mighty Quinn.[12] The song "Sponji Reggae" was featured briefly on season two of The Cosby Show, when Denise Huxtable and her boyfriend were watching the music video on TV. The song "What Is Life" was featured briefly on season four of Miami Vice. Additionally, "Party Next Door" was featured in the 1980's movie North Shore. "What Is Life" was also featured in Season 1, Episode 4 of the American television show "Wiseguy", in the episode "The Loose Cannon" (when the series went to video, that song was removed and replaced with stock music).
Discography
Group: Derrick "Duckie" Simpson, Michael Rose, Errol "Tarzan" Nelson
1977 – Love Crisis
1981 – Black Sounds of Freedom (Love Crisis re-edition)
Group: Derek "Duckie" Simpson, Michael Rose, Sandra "Puma" Jones, Sly Dunbar, Robbie Shakespeare
1979 – Showcase
1980 – Black Uhuru (Showcase re-edition)
1980 – Sinsemilla
1981 – Red
1982 – Chill Out
1983 – Guess Who's Coming To Dinner (Black Uhuru re-edition)
1983 – Anthem
1985 – Reggae Greats (compilation)
Group: Derrick "Duckie" Simpson, Delroy "Junior" Reid, Sandra "Puma" Jones
1986 – Brutal
Group: Derrick "Duckie" Simpson, Delroy "Junior" Reid, Olafunke
1987 – Positive
Group: Derrick "Duckie" Simpson, Garth Dennis, Don Carlos
1990 – Now
1991 – Iron Storm
1993 – Mystical Truth
1994 – Strongg
Group: Derrick "Duckie" Simpson, Jenifah Nyah, Andrew Bees
1998 – Unification
2001 – Dynasty
Live / Dub albums:
1982 – Uhuru in Dub
1982 – Tear It Up – Live (album and video)
1983 – The Dub Factor
1984 – Live
1986 – Brutal Dub
1987 – The Positive Dub
1988 – Live In New York City
1990 – Now Dub
1990 – Love Dub (Uhuru In Dub re-edition)
1992 – Iron Storm Dub
1993 – Mystical Truth Dub
1994 – Strongg Dubb
2000 – Live 1984
2001 – In Dub
2001 – Dubbin' It Live (summer 2001, at Paléo Festival)
2013 - Live In Germany 1981 (Rockpalast on CD and DVD)
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